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Neural architecture of Galathowenia oculata Zach, 1923 (Oweniidae, Annelida)

Overview of attention for article published in Frontiers in Zoology, February 2016
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Title
Neural architecture of Galathowenia oculata Zach, 1923 (Oweniidae, Annelida)
Published in
Frontiers in Zoology, February 2016
DOI 10.1186/s12983-016-0136-2
Pubmed ID
Authors

Nadezhda N. Rimskaya-Korsakova, Nadezhda N. Rimskaya-Korsakova, Alen Kristof, Vladimir V. Malakhov, Andreas Wanninger

Abstract

Oweniids are marine tubeworms burrowing in muddy sediments that in current phylogenies form an early branching lineage within Annelida. Little is known about their general morphology, in particular the nervous system. Here we provide an immunocytochemical investigation of the nervous system of Galathowenia oculata in order to discuss putative ancestral neuronal features in Oweniidae. Adult Galathowenia oculata have neither a supraesophageal ganglion nor ganglia associated with the ventral nerve cord. Instead, there is a dorsal brain commissure in the head collar that is engulfed by a cellular cortex. Accordingly, we herein term this neural structure "medullary brain commissure". The anterior margin of the head collar exhibits numerous neurites that emerge from the brain commissure. The dorsolateral folds are innervated by the ventrolateral neurite bundles extending from the circumesophageal connectives. In the anterior uniramous and biramous segments immunoreactive somata are distributed evenly along the ventral nerve cord and arranged metamerically in the posterior-most short segments. One dorsal and two pairs of lateral neurite bundles extend longitudinally along the body. Numerous serially arranged circular neurite bundles were labeled in anteriormost long segments. Metameric arrangement of the circular neurite bundles stained against FMRFamide and acetylated α-tubulin is revealed in posterior short segments. For the first time immunoreactive somata arranged in clusters are reported within the pygidium in oweniids. Due to the lack of head appendages and a sedentary mode of life, G. oculata exhibits a single dorsal commissure (versus a brain with four commissures in most annelids). A "medullary brain commissure" is known so far only in Oweniidae and Echiura. Lack of ganglia and metamery in the ventral nerve cord of the anteriormost segments might be the result of the elongation of these segments. In the short posterior segments the metamery of immunoreactive somata and circular neurite bundles is conserved. We hypothesize that the unpaired ventral nerve cord in adult oweniids might be a result of an initially paired ventral nerve cord that fuses during development, a condition not uncommon within Annelida.

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 21 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Brazil 1 5%
Unknown 20 95%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 9 43%
Student > Ph. D. Student 4 19%
Student > Bachelor 2 10%
Student > Doctoral Student 1 5%
Professor 1 5%
Other 2 10%
Unknown 2 10%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 15 71%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 1 5%
Environmental Science 1 5%
Earth and Planetary Sciences 1 5%
Unknown 3 14%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 19 February 2016.
All research outputs
#5,430,482
of 7,214,390 outputs
Outputs from Frontiers in Zoology
#291
of 343 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#222,957
of 321,063 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Frontiers in Zoology
#15
of 16 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 7,214,390 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 13th percentile – i.e., 13% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 343 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 18.7. This one is in the 6th percentile – i.e., 6% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 321,063 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 16th percentile – i.e., 16% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 16 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 6th percentile – i.e., 6% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.