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Retinoid and carotenoid status in serum and liver among patients at high-risk for liver cancer

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Gastroenterology, February 2016
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2 tweeters


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Retinoid and carotenoid status in serum and liver among patients at high-risk for liver cancer
Published in
BMC Gastroenterology, February 2016
DOI 10.1186/s12876-016-0432-5
Pubmed ID

Yachana Kataria, Ryan J. Deaton, Erika Enk, Ming Jin, Milita Petrauskaite, Linlin Dong, Joseph R. Goldenberg, Scott J. Cotler, Donald M. Jensen, Richard B. van Breemen, Peter H. Gann


Approximately 2.7 million Americans are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV patients with cirrhosis form the largest group of persons at high risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Increased oxidative stress is regarded as a major mechanism of HCV-related liver disease progression. Deficiencies in retinoid and carotenoid antioxidants may represent a major modifiable risk factor for disease progression. This study aims to identify key predictors of serum antioxidant levels in patients with HCV, to examine the relationship between retinoid/carotenoid concentrations in serum and hepatic tissue, to quantify the association between systemic measures of oxidative stress and antioxidant status, and to examine the relationship between retinoids and stellate cell activation. Patients undergoing liver biopsy (n = 69) provided fasting blood, fresh tissue, urine and completed a diet history questionnaire. Serum and questionnaire data from healthy volunteers (n = 11), normal liver tissue from public repositories and patients without liver disease (n = 11) were also collected. Urinary isoprostanes, serum and tissue retinoid concentrations were obtained by UHPLC-MS-MS. Immunohistochemistry for αSMA was performed on FFPE sections and subsequently quantified via digital image analysis. Associations between urinary isoprostanes, αSMA levels, and retinoids were assessed using Spearman correlation coefficients and non-parametric tests were utilized to test differences among disease severity groups. There was a significant inverse association between serum retinol, lycopene, and RBP4 concentrations with fibrosis stage. Serum β-carotene and lycopene were strongly associated with their respective tissue concentrations. There was a weak downward trend of tissue retinyl palmitate with increasing fibrosis stage. Tissue retinyl palmitate was inversely and significantly correlated with hepatic αSMA expression, a marker for hepatic stellate cell activation (r = -0.31, P < 0.02). Urinary isoprostanes levels were inversely correlated with serum retinol, β-carotene, and RBP4. A decrease in serum retinol, β-carotene, and RBP4 is associated with early stage HCV. Retinoid and carotenoid levels decline as disease progresses, and our data suggest that this decline occurs early in the disease process, even before fibrosis is apparent. Measures of oxidative stress are associated with fibrosis stage and concurrent antioxidant depletion. Vitamin A loss is accompanied by stellate cell activation in hepatic tissue.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 75 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 1 1%
Austria 1 1%
Unknown 73 97%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 15 20%
Unspecified 14 19%
Researcher 8 11%
Student > Master 7 9%
Student > Doctoral Student 5 7%
Other 12 16%
Unknown 14 19%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Unspecified 14 19%
Medicine and Dentistry 11 15%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 9 12%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 9 12%
Nursing and Health Professions 3 4%
Other 11 15%
Unknown 18 24%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 30 June 2016.
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So far Altmetric has tracked 1,534 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 5.9. This one is in the 31st percentile – i.e., 31% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
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