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Distal-less induces elemental color patterns in Junonia butterfly wings

Overview of attention for article published in Zoological Letters, March 2016
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Distal-less induces elemental color patterns in Junonia butterfly wings
Published in
Zoological Letters, March 2016
DOI 10.1186/s40851-016-0040-9
Pubmed ID

Bidur Dhungel, Yoshikazu Ohno, Rie Matayoshi, Mayo Iwasaki, Wataru Taira, Kiran Adhikari, Raj Gurung, Joji M. Otaki


The border ocellus, or eyespot, is a conspicuous color pattern element in butterfly wings. For two decades, it has been hypothesized that transcription factors such as Distal-less (Dll) are responsible for eyespot pattern development in butterfly wings, based on their expression in the prospective eyespots. In particular, it has been suggested that Dll is a determinant for eyespot size. However, functional evidence for this hypothesis has remained incomplete, due to technical difficulties. Here, we show that ectopically expressed Dll induces ectopic elemental color patterns in the adult wings of the blue pansy butterfly, Junonia orithya (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae). Using baculovirus-mediated gene transfer, we misexpressed Dll protein fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) in pupal wings, resulting in ectopic color patterns, but not the formation of intact eyespots. Induced changes included clusters of black and orange scales (a basic feature of eyespot patterns), black and gray scales, and inhibition of cover scale development. In contrast, ectopic expression of GFP alone did not induce any color pattern changes using the same baculovirus-mediated gene transfer system. These results suggest that Dll plays an instructive role in the development of color pattern elements in butterfly wings, although Dll alone may not be sufficient to induce a complete eyespot. This study thus experimentally supports the hypothesis of Dll function in eyespot development.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 20 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 20 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 4 20%
Student > Master 3 15%
Student > Doctoral Student 2 10%
Student > Bachelor 2 10%
Other 2 10%
Other 4 20%
Unknown 3 15%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 10 50%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 3 15%
Environmental Science 1 5%
Arts and Humanities 1 5%
Physics and Astronomy 1 5%
Other 0 0%
Unknown 4 20%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 05 March 2016.
All research outputs
of 22,854,458 outputs
Outputs from Zoological Letters
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Outputs of similar age
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Outputs of similar age from Zoological Letters
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Altmetric has tracked 22,854,458 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 39th percentile – i.e., 39% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 168 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 13.8. This one is in the 26th percentile – i.e., 26% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 298,400 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 50% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 9 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one.