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Procyanidins alleviates morphine tolerance by inhibiting activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in microglia

Overview of attention for article published in Journal of Neuroinflammation, March 2016
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Title
Procyanidins alleviates morphine tolerance by inhibiting activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in microglia
Published in
Journal of Neuroinflammation, March 2016
DOI 10.1186/s12974-016-0520-z
Pubmed ID
Authors

Yang Cai, Hong Kong, Yin-Bing Pan, Lai Jiang, Xiu-Xiu Pan, Liang Hu, Yan-Ning Qian, Chun-Yi Jiang, Wen-Tao Liu

Abstract

The development of antinociceptive tolerance following repetitive administration of opioid analgesics significantly hinders their clinical use. Evidence has accumulated indicating that microglia within the spinal cord plays a critical role in morphine tolerance. The inhibitor of microglia is effective to attenuate the tolerance; however, the mechanism is not fully understood. Our present study investigated the effects and possible mechanism of a natural product procyanidins in improving morphine tolerance via its specific inhibition on NOD-like receptor protein3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in microglia. CD-1 mice were used for tail-flick test to evaluate the degree of pain. The microglial cell line BV-2 was used to investigate the effects and the mechanism of procyanidins. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced from BV-2 cells was evaluated by flow cytometry. Cell signaling was measured by western blot assay and immunofluorescence assay. Co-administration of procyanidins with morphine potentiated its antinociception effect and attenuated the development of acute and chronic morphine tolerance. Procyanidins also inhibited morphine-induced increase of interleukin-1β and activation of NOD-like receptor protein3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Furthermore, procyanidins decreased the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, inhibited the translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and suppressed the level of reactive oxygen species in microglia. Procyanidins suppresses morphine-induced activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and inflammatory responses in microglia, and thus resulting in significant attenuation of morphine antinociceptive tolerance.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 48 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 48 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 9 19%
Student > Master 6 13%
Student > Doctoral Student 5 10%
Researcher 5 10%
Student > Bachelor 4 8%
Other 10 21%
Unknown 9 19%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Neuroscience 8 17%
Medicine and Dentistry 7 15%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 7 15%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 5 10%
Immunology and Microbiology 3 6%
Other 4 8%
Unknown 14 29%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 08 March 2016.
All research outputs
#5,571,337
of 7,367,623 outputs
Outputs from Journal of Neuroinflammation
#686
of 951 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#197,227
of 280,915 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Journal of Neuroinflammation
#44
of 59 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 7,367,623 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 13th percentile – i.e., 13% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 951 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.5. This one is in the 13th percentile – i.e., 13% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 280,915 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 15th percentile – i.e., 15% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 59 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 15th percentile – i.e., 15% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.