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When intensity of deltamethrin resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.l. leads to loss of Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets bio-efficacy: a case study in north Cameroon

Overview of attention for article published in Parasites & Vectors, March 2016
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2 tweeters

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62 Mendeley
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Title
When intensity of deltamethrin resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.l. leads to loss of Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets bio-efficacy: a case study in north Cameroon
Published in
Parasites & Vectors, March 2016
DOI 10.1186/s13071-016-1420-x
Pubmed ID
Authors

Josiane Etang, Cédric Pennetier, Michael Piameu, Aziz Bouraima, Fabrice Chandre, Parfait Awono-Ambene, Coosemans Marc, Vincent Corbel

Abstract

In Cameroon, insecticide resistance in Anopheles (An.) gambiae s.l. has been reported in several foci, prompting further investigations on associated patterns of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) bio-efficacy. The current study, conducted from June to August 2011, explored the intensity of deltamethrin resistance in An. gambiae s.l. from Pitoa and its impact on the residual bio-efficacy of LifeNet, a LLIN with deltamethrin incorporated into polypropylene nets (PND). Two-four days old females An. gambiae s.l. reared from larval collections in Pitoa were tested for susceptibility to DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin, using standard World Health Organization (WHO) tube assays. Intensity of deltamethrin resistance was explored using WHO tube assays, but across six working concentrations from 0.001 % to 0.5 %. Bio-efficacy of unwashed and washed PND was assessed using WHO cone test. Species identification and kdr 1014 genotyping were performed on mosquito samples that were not exposed to insecticides, using PCR-RFLP and HOLA methods respectively. The Kisumu reference susceptible strain of An. gambiae s.s. was used for comparisons. A total of 1895 An. gambiae s.l. specimens from Pitoa were used for resistance and PND bio-efficacy testing. This mosquito population was resistant to DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin, with 18-40 min knockdown times for 50 % of tested mosquitoes and 59-77 % mortality. Deltamethrin Resistance Ratio compared with the Kisumu strain was estimated at ≥500 fold. LifeNets were effective against the susceptible Kisumu (100 % knockdown (KD60min) and mortality) and the resistant Pitoa samples (95 % KD60min, 83-95 % mortality). However, the bio-efficacy gradually dropped against the Pitoa samples when nets were washed (X (2) = 35.887, df = 8, p < 0.001), and fell under the WHO efficacy threshold (80 % mortality and/or 95 % KD60min) between 10 and 15 washes. The Pitoa samples were composed of three sibling species: An. arabiensis (132/154, 86 %), An. coluzzii (19/154, 12 %) and An. gambiae s.s. (3/154, 2 %). The kdr L1014F allele was found only in An. coluzzii (Npositive = 13/19), at 34 % frequency and heterozygote stage. No specimen carried the kdr L1014S allele. The current study showed that LifeNet might still offer some protection against the resistant An. gambiae s.l. population from Pitoa, provided appropriate dose of insecticide is available on the nets.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 2 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 62 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 62 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 14 23%
Student > Master 11 18%
Student > Ph. D. Student 8 13%
Lecturer > Senior Lecturer 3 5%
Student > Postgraduate 3 5%
Other 6 10%
Unknown 17 27%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 12 19%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 9 15%
Medicine and Dentistry 6 10%
Nursing and Health Professions 5 8%
Environmental Science 5 8%
Other 9 15%
Unknown 16 26%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 18 March 2016.
All research outputs
#3,593,890
of 7,408,484 outputs
Outputs from Parasites & Vectors
#990
of 2,011 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#138,699
of 276,142 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Parasites & Vectors
#92
of 168 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 7,408,484 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 48th percentile – i.e., 48% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 2,011 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 3.5. This one is in the 45th percentile – i.e., 45% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 276,142 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 46th percentile – i.e., 46% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 168 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 39th percentile – i.e., 39% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.