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Sepsis-induced long-term immune paralysis – results of a descriptive, explorative study

Overview of attention for article published in Critical Care, February 2016
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (76th percentile)

Mentioned by

9 tweeters
2 Facebook pages


48 Dimensions

Readers on

109 Mendeley
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Sepsis-induced long-term immune paralysis – results of a descriptive, explorative study
Published in
Critical Care, February 2016
DOI 10.1186/s13054-016-1233-5
Pubmed ID

C. Arens, S. A. Bajwa, C. Koch, B. H. Siegler, E. Schneck, A. Hecker, S. Weiterer, C. Lichtenstern, M. A. Weigand, F. Uhle


Long-lasting impairment of the immune system is believed to be the underlying reason for delayed deaths after surviving sepsis. We tested the hypothesis of persisting changes to the immune system in survivors of sepsis for the first time. In our prospective, cross-sectional pilot study, eight former patients who survived catecholamine-dependent sepsis and eight control individuals matched for age, sex, diabetes and renal insufficiency were enrolled. Each participant completed a questionnaire concerning morbidities, medications and infection history. Peripheral blood was collected for determination of i) immune cell subsets (CD4(+), CD8(+) T cells; CD25(+) CD127(-) regulatory T cells; CD14(+) monocytes), ii) cell surface receptor expression (PD-1, BTLA, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, Dectin-1, PD-1 L), iii) HLA-DR expression, and iv) cytokine secretion (IL-6, IL10, TNF-α, IFN-γ) of whole blood stimulated with either α-CD3/28, LPS or zymosan. After surviving sepsis, former patients presented with increased numbers of clinical apparent infections, including those typically associated with an impaired immune system. Standard inflammatory markers indicated a low-level inflammatory situation in former sepsis patients. CD8(+) cell surface receptor as well as monocytic HLA-DR density measurements showed no major differences between the groups, while CD4(+) T cells tended towards two opposed mechanisms of negative immune cell regulation via PD-1 and BTLA. Moreover, the post-sepsis group showed alterations in monocyte surface expression of distinct pattern recognition receptors; most pronouncedly seen in a decrease of TLR5 expression. Cytokine secretion in response to important activators of both the innate (LPS, zymosan) and the adaptive immune system (α-CD3/28) seemed to be weakened in former septic patients. Cytokine secretion as a reaction to different activators of the immune system seemed to be comprehensively impaired in survivors of sepsis. Among others, this could be based on trends in the downregulation of distinct cell surface receptors. Based on our results, the conduct of larger validation studies seems feasible, aiming to characterize alterations and to find potential therapeutic targets to engage.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 9 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 109 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
France 1 <1%
Unknown 108 99%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 17 16%
Researcher 17 16%
Student > Master 15 14%
Student > Ph. D. Student 10 9%
Other 8 7%
Other 19 17%
Unknown 23 21%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 39 36%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 12 11%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 10 9%
Immunology and Microbiology 10 9%
Nursing and Health Professions 5 5%
Other 6 6%
Unknown 27 25%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 7. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 31 August 2020.
All research outputs
of 17,094,905 outputs
Outputs from Critical Care
of 5,278 outputs
Outputs of similar age
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Outputs of similar age from Critical Care
of 41 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 17,094,905 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done well and is in the 80th percentile: it's in the top 25% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 5,278 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 16.6. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 54% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 269,485 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done well, scoring higher than 76% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 41 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 21st percentile – i.e., 21% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.