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Effects of thermal water inhalation in chronic upper respiratory tract infections in elderly and young patients

Overview of attention for article published in Immunity & Ageing, May 2016
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Title
Effects of thermal water inhalation in chronic upper respiratory tract infections in elderly and young patients
Published in
Immunity & Ageing, May 2016
DOI 10.1186/s12979-016-0073-0
Pubmed ID
Authors

Thea Magrone, Thea Magrone, Mauro Galantino, Nunzio Di Bitonto, Luisella Borraccino, Gerardo Chiaromonte, Emilio Jirillo

Abstract

Chronic upper respiratory tract infections (cURTI) are very frequent illnesses which occur at any age of life. In elderly, cURTI are complicated by immunosenescence, with involvement of lung immune responsiveness. In the present study, 51 elderly (age range: 66-86) and 51 young (age range 24-58) cURTI patients underwent a single cycle (two weeks) of inhalatory therapy with salt-bromide-iodine thermal water in the thermal station "Margherita di Savoia" (Margherita di Savoia, BAT, Italy). Peripheral blood serum cytokines and clinical assessment were performed before therapy (T0) and after six months (T1) and 12 months (T2) from inhalatory treatment. In both elderly and young patients, at baseline an increased release of T helper (h)1-related cytokines [interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon-γ] and of Th2-related cytokine (IL-4) was documented. Inhalatory treatment reduced the excessive secretion of all the above-cited cytokines. IL-10 values were above normality at all times considered in both groups of patients. In addition, an increase in IL-17 and IL-21 serum levels following therapy was observed in both groups of patients. Pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α) baseline values were lower than normal values at T0 in both elderly and young cURTI patients. Their levels increased following inhalatory treatment. Clinically, at T2 a dramatic reduction of frequency of upper respiratory tract infections was recorded in both groups of patients. Thermal water inhalation is able to modulate systemic immune response in elderly and young cURTI patients, thus reducing excessive production of Th1 and Th2-related cytokines, on the one hand. On the other hand, increased levels of IL-21 (an inducer of Th17 cells) and of IL-17 may be interpreted as a protective mechanism, which likely leads to neutrophil recruitment in cURTI patients. Also restoration of pro-inflammatory cytokine release following inhalatory therapy may result in microbe eradication. Quite importantly, the maintenance of high levels of IL-10 during the follow-up would suggest a consistent regulatory role of this cytokine in attenuating the pro-inflammatory arm of the immune response.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 15 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 15 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Other 3 20%
Student > Ph. D. Student 3 20%
Student > Master 3 20%
Professor 1 7%
Unspecified 1 7%
Other 2 13%
Unknown 2 13%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Nursing and Health Professions 4 27%
Medicine and Dentistry 3 20%
Unspecified 1 7%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 1 7%
Environmental Science 1 7%
Other 2 13%
Unknown 3 20%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 05 May 2016.
All research outputs
#5,791,845
of 7,657,182 outputs
Outputs from Immunity & Ageing
#93
of 127 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#186,670
of 266,428 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Immunity & Ageing
#12
of 13 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 7,657,182 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 13th percentile – i.e., 13% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 127 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 7.1. This one is in the 6th percentile – i.e., 6% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 266,428 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 16th percentile – i.e., 16% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 13 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.