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Coevolutionary feedback elevates constitutive immune defence: a protein network model

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Evolutionary Biology, May 2016
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Title
Coevolutionary feedback elevates constitutive immune defence: a protein network model
Published in
BMC Evolutionary Biology, May 2016
DOI 10.1186/s12862-016-0667-3
Pubmed ID
Authors

Tsukushi Kamiya, Leonardo Oña, Bregje Wertheim, G. Sander van Doorn

Abstract

Organisms have evolved a variety of defence mechanisms against natural enemies, which are typically used at the expense of other life history components. Induced defence mechanisms impose minor costs when pathogens are absent, but mounting an induced response can be time-consuming. Therefore, to ensure timely protection, organisms may partly rely on constitutive defence despite its sustained cost that renders it less economical. Existing theoretical models addressing the optimal combination of constitutive versus induced defence focus solely on host adaptation and ignore the fact that the efficacy of protection depends on genotype-specific host-parasite interactions. Here, we develop a signal-transduction network model inspired by the invertebrate innate immune system, in order to address the effect of parasite coevolution on the optimal combination of constitutive and induced defence. Our analysis reveals that coevolution of parasites with specific immune components shifts the host's optimal allocation from induced towards constitutive immunity. This effect is dependent upon whether receptors (for detection) or effectors (for elimination) are subjected to parasite counter-evolution. A parasite population subjected to a specific immune receptor can evolve heightened genetic diversity, which makes parasite detection more difficult for the hosts. We show that this coevolutionary feedback renders the induced immune response less efficient, forcing the hosts to invest more heavily in constitutive immunity. Parasites diversify to escape elimination by a specific effector too. However, this diversification does not alter the optimal balance between constitutive and induced defence: the reliance on constitutive defence is promoted by the receptor's inability to detect, but not the effectors' inability to eliminate parasites. If effectors are useless, hosts simply adapt to tolerate, rather than to invest in any defence against parasites. These contrasting results indicate that evolutionary feedback between host and parasite populations is a key factor shaping the selection regime for immune networks facing antagonistic coevolution. Parasite coevolution against specific immune defence alters the prediction of the optimal use of defence, and the effect of parasite coevolution varies between different immune components.

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 38 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Japan 1 3%
United Kingdom 1 3%
Unknown 36 95%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 10 26%
Researcher 9 24%
Student > Master 5 13%
Student > Doctoral Student 3 8%
Professor 3 8%
Other 5 13%
Unknown 3 8%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 18 47%
Immunology and Microbiology 5 13%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 3 8%
Physics and Astronomy 2 5%
Computer Science 2 5%
Other 2 5%
Unknown 6 16%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 08 May 2016.
All research outputs
#15,372,369
of 22,869,263 outputs
Outputs from BMC Evolutionary Biology
#2,317
of 2,913 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#179,281
of 298,934 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Evolutionary Biology
#51
of 65 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 22,869,263 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 22nd percentile – i.e., 22% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 2,913 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 11.3. This one is in the 13th percentile – i.e., 13% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
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We're also able to compare this research output to 65 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 13th percentile – i.e., 13% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.