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Characterization of osteoarthritic human knees indicates potential sex differences

Overview of attention for article published in Biology of Sex Differences, June 2016
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  • Above-average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (60th percentile)
  • Above-average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (60th percentile)

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2 tweeters
1 Facebook page


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49 Mendeley
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Characterization of osteoarthritic human knees indicates potential sex differences
Published in
Biology of Sex Differences, June 2016
DOI 10.1186/s13293-016-0080-z
Pubmed ID

Qingfen Pan, Mary I. O’Connor, Richard D. Coutts, Sharon L. Hyzy, Rene Olivares-Navarrete, Zvi Schwartz, Barbara D. Boyan


The prevalence of osteoarthritis is higher in women than in men in every age group, and overall prevalence increases with advancing age. Sex-specific differences in the properties of osteoarthritic joint tissues may permit the development of sex-specific therapies. Sex hormones regulate cartilage and bone development and homeostasis in a sex-dependent manner. Recent in vitro studies show that the vitamin D3 metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25(OH)2D3] also has sex-specific effects on musculoskeletal cells, suggesting that vitamin D3 metabolites may play a role in osteoarthritis-related sex-specific differences. The purpose of this study was to determine if sex-specific differences exist in synovial fluid and knee tissues isolated from male and female patients with severe knee osteoarthritis. We determined the presence of vitamin D3 metabolites, inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in synovial fluid and assessed responses of articular chondrocytes and subchondral osteoblasts to 17β-estradiol, dihydrotestosterone, and 1α,25(OH)2D3. Samples from knee joints of 10 Caucasian male and 10 Caucasian female patients with advanced osteoarthritis aged 65 to 75 years were obtained from total knee arthroplasty. Vitamin D metabolites, cytokines, MMPs, and growth factors in the synovial fluid were measured. Primary cultures of chondrocytes were isolated from fibrillated articular cartilage adjacent to osteoarthritis lesions and minimally affected cartilage distal to the lesion. Osteoblasts were isolated from the subchondral bone. Expression of receptors for 17β-estradiol and 1α,25(OH)2D3 was assessed by real-time PCR. Chondrocytes and osteoblasts were treated with 10(-8) M 17β-estradiol, dihydrotestosterone, or 1α,25(OH)2D3 and effects on gene expression and protein synthesis determined. Histology of the articular cartilage confirmed advanced osteoarthritis. Sex differences were found in synovial fluid levels of vitamin D metabolites, cytokines, and metalloproteinases as well as in the cellular expression of receptors for 17β-estradiol and 1α,25(OH)2D3. Male cells were more responsive to 1α,25(OH)2D3 and dihydrotestosterone, whereas 17β-estradiol-affected female cells. These results demonstrate that there are underlying sex differences in knee tissues affected by osteoarthritis. Our findings do not address osteoarthritis etiology but have implications for different prevention methods and treatments for men and women. Further research is needed to better understand these sex-based differences.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 2 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 49 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 49 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 9 18%
Student > Master 7 14%
Student > Ph. D. Student 6 12%
Student > Bachelor 4 8%
Professor 4 8%
Other 11 22%
Unknown 8 16%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 16 33%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 6 12%
Immunology and Microbiology 2 4%
Engineering 2 4%
Nursing and Health Professions 2 4%
Other 7 14%
Unknown 14 29%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 3. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 28 September 2016.
All research outputs
of 8,446,126 outputs
Outputs from Biology of Sex Differences
of 150 outputs
Outputs of similar age
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Outputs of similar age from Biology of Sex Differences
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Altmetric has tracked 8,446,126 research outputs across all sources so far. This one has received more attention than most of these and is in the 56th percentile.
So far Altmetric has tracked 150 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 11.9. This one is in the 44th percentile – i.e., 44% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 273,101 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 60% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 5 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than 3 of them.