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Fluorescent imaging of superficial head and neck squamous cell carcinoma using a γ-glutamyltranspeptidase-activated targeting agent: a pilot study

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Cancer, July 2016
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Title
Fluorescent imaging of superficial head and neck squamous cell carcinoma using a γ-glutamyltranspeptidase-activated targeting agent: a pilot study
Published in
BMC Cancer, July 2016
DOI 10.1186/s12885-016-2421-z
Pubmed ID
Authors

Takeshi Mizushima, Shunsuke Ohnishi, Yuichi Shimizu, Yutaka Hatanaka, Kanako C. Hatanaka, Hidetaka Hosono, Yoshimasa Kubota, Mitsuteru Natsuizaka, Mako Kamiya, Shouko Ono, Akihiro Homma, Mototsugu Kato, Naoya Sakamoto, Yasuteru Urano

Abstract

Detecting superficial head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) by endoscopy is challenging because of limited morphological hallmarks, and iodine cannot be applied to head and neck lesions due to severe mucosal irritation. γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), a cell surface enzyme, is overexpressed in several cancers, and it has been reported that γ-glutamyl hydroxymethyl rhodamine green (gGlu-HMRG), a fluorescent targeting agent which can be enzymatically activated and becomes fluorescent after cleavage of a GGT-specific sequence, can be activated within a few minutes after application to animal models. We investigated whether early HNSCC can be detected by applying gGlu-HMRG to clinical samples. gGlu-HMRG was applied to four HNSCC cell lines, and fluorescence was observed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Immunohistological examination was performed in three recent cases of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) to investigate GGT expression. Fluorescence imaging with gGlu-HMRG in eight clinical samples resected by ESD or surgery was performed, and fluorescence intensity of tumor and normal mucosa regions of interest (ROI) was prospectively measured. All four gGlu-HMRG-applied cell lines emitted green fluorescence. Immunohistological examination demonstrated that GGT was highly expressed in HNSCC of the recent three ESD cases but barely in the normal mucosa. Fluorescence imaging showed that iodine-voiding lesions became fluorescent within a few minutes after application of gGlu-HMRG in all eight resected tumors. Tumor ROI fluorescence intensity was significantly higher than in the normal mucosa five minutes after gGlu-HMRG application. Fluorescence imaging with gGlu-HMRG would be useful for early detection of HNSCC.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 29 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United Kingdom 1 3%
Unknown 28 97%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 5 17%
Student > Bachelor 4 14%
Other 4 14%
Researcher 3 10%
Professor > Associate Professor 3 10%
Other 7 24%
Unknown 3 10%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 17 59%
Chemistry 4 14%
Engineering 2 7%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 2 7%
Nursing and Health Professions 1 3%
Other 0 0%
Unknown 3 10%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 02 February 2017.
All research outputs
#6,858,339
of 9,000,236 outputs
Outputs from BMC Cancer
#2,379
of 3,706 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#184,896
of 264,325 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Cancer
#128
of 232 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 9,000,236 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 13th percentile – i.e., 13% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 3,706 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 3.8. This one is in the 19th percentile – i.e., 19% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 264,325 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 16th percentile – i.e., 16% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 232 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 34th percentile – i.e., 34% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.