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Ozone and cardiovascular injury

Overview of attention for article published in Cardiovascular Ultrasound, June 2009
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Title
Ozone and cardiovascular injury
Published in
Cardiovascular Ultrasound, June 2009
DOI 10.1186/1476-7120-7-30
Pubmed ID
Authors

Vera Srebot, Emilio AL Gianicolo, Giuseppe Rainaldi, Maria Giovanna Trivella, Rosa Sicari

Abstract

Air pollution is increasingly recognized as an important and modifiable determinant of cardiovascular diseases in urban communities. The potential detrimental effects are both acute and chronic having a strong impact on morbidity and mortality. The acute exposure to pollutants has been linked to adverse cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, heart failure and life-threatening arrhythmias. The long-terms effects are related to the lifetime risk of death from cardiac causes. The WHO estimates that air pollution is responsible for 3 million premature deaths each year. The evidence supporting these data is very strong nonetheless, epidemiologic and observational data have the main limitation of imprecise measurements. Moreover, the lack of clinical experimental models makes it difficult to demonstrate the individual risk. The other limitation is related to the lack of a clear mechanism explaining the effects of pollution on cardiovascular mortality. In the present review we will explore the epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence of the effects of ozone on cardiovascular diseases. The pathophysiologic consequences of air pollutant exposures have been extensively investigated in pulmonary systems, and it is clear that some of the major components of air pollution (e.g. ozone and particulate matter) can initiate and exacerbate lung disease in humans 1. It is possible that pulmonary oxidant stress mediated by particulate matter and/or ozone (O3) exposure can result in downstream perturbations in the cardiovasculature, as the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems are intricately associated, and it is well documented that specific environmental toxins (such as tobacco smoke 2) introduced through the lungs can initiate and/or accelerate cardiovascular disease development. Indeed, several epidemiologic studies have proved that there is an association between PM and O3 and the increased incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality 3. Most of the evidence comes from studies of ambient particles concentrations. However, in Europe and elsewhere, the air pollution profile has gradually changed toward a more pronounced photochemical component. Ozone is one of the most toxic components of the photochemical air pollution mixture. Indeed, the biological basis for these observations has not been elucidated. In the present review, the role of ozone as chemical molecule will be firstly considered. Secondly, pathogenetic mechanisms connecting the atmospheric ozone level and cardiovascular pathology will be examined. Thirdly, the literature relating hospitalization frequency, morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular causes and ozone concentration will be studied. The correlation between ozone level and occurrence of acute myocardial infarction will be eventually discussed.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 79 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United Kingdom 1 1%
India 1 1%
United States 1 1%
Germany 1 1%
Unknown 75 95%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 11 14%
Student > Master 11 14%
Student > Bachelor 11 14%
Student > Ph. D. Student 10 13%
Other 5 6%
Other 17 22%
Unknown 14 18%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 22 28%
Environmental Science 9 11%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 5 6%
Engineering 5 6%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 4 5%
Other 15 19%
Unknown 19 24%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 15 September 2012.
All research outputs
#16,620,279
of 18,787,703 outputs
Outputs from Cardiovascular Ultrasound
#270
of 291 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#127,168
of 145,485 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Cardiovascular Ultrasound
#1
of 1 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 18,787,703 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 291 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 3.8. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
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