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The recombination dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus inferred from spA gene

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Microbiology, July 2016
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Title
The recombination dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus inferred from spA gene
Published in
BMC Microbiology, July 2016
DOI 10.1186/s12866-016-0757-9
Pubmed ID
Authors

Célio D. Santos-Júnior, António Veríssimo, Joana Costa

Abstract

Given the role of spA as a pivotal virulence factor decisive for Staphylococcus aureus ability to escape from innate and adaptive immune responses, one can consider it as an object subject to adaptive evolution and that variations in spA may uncover pathogenicity variations. The population genetic structure was deduced from the extracellular domains of SpA gene sequence (domains A-E and the X-region) and compared to the MLST-analysis of 41 genetically diverse methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) S. aureus strains. Incongruence between tree topologies was noticeable and in the inferred spA tree most MSSA isolates were clustered in a distinct group. Conversely, the distribution of strains according to their spA-type was not always congruent with the tree inferred from the complete spA gene foreseeing that spA is a mosaic gene composed of different segments exhibiting different evolutionary histories. Evidences of a network-like organization were identified through several conflicting phylogenetic signals and indeed several intragenic recombination events (within subdomains of the gene) were detected within and between CC's of MRSA strains. The alignment of SpA sequences enabled the clustering of several isoforms as a result of non-randomly distributed amino acid variations, located in two clusters of polymorphic sites in domains D to B and Xr (a). Nevertheless, evidences of cluster specific structural arrangements were detected reflecting alterations on specific residues with potential impact on S. aureus pathogenicity. The detection of positive selection operating on spA combined with frequent non-synonymous mutations, domain duplication and frequent intragenic recombination events represent important mechanisms acting in the evolutionary adaptive mechanism promoting spA genetic plasticity. These findings argue that crucial allelic forms correlated with pathogenicity can be identified by sequences analysis enabling the design of more robust schemes.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 33 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 33 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 14 42%
Researcher 4 12%
Student > Ph. D. Student 4 12%
Student > Postgraduate 2 6%
Professor > Associate Professor 2 6%
Other 5 15%
Unknown 2 6%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 8 24%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 7 21%
Immunology and Microbiology 7 21%
Medicine and Dentistry 2 6%
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 1 3%
Other 4 12%
Unknown 4 12%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 14 July 2016.
All research outputs
#11,198,013
of 14,123,042 outputs
Outputs from BMC Microbiology
#1,456
of 2,127 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#181,676
of 258,825 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Microbiology
#1
of 1 outputs
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