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Comparative expression of Toll-like receptors and inflammatory cytokines in pigs infected with different virulent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates

Overview of attention for article published in Virology Journal, April 2013
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Title
Comparative expression of Toll-like receptors and inflammatory cytokines in pigs infected with different virulent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates
Published in
Virology Journal, April 2013
DOI 10.1186/1743-422x-10-135
Pubmed ID
Authors

Lili Zhang, Jie Liu, Juan Bai, Xiaoye Wang, Yufeng Li, Ping Jiang

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is largely responsible for heavy economic losses in the swine industry worldwide because of its high mutation rate and subsequent emergence of virulent strains. However, the immunological and pathological responses of pigs to PRRSV strains with different virulence have not been completely elucidated. METHODS: Twenty-four piglets were divided into 4 groups (n = 6 each) and inoculated with highly pathogenic PRRSV isolate BB0907 (HP), low pathogenic PRRSV NT0801 (LP), LP derivative strain NT0801-F70 (LP-der), and DMEM medium (control), respectively. The changes in TLR2, 3, 7, and 8 gene expression and TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IFN-gamma, and IL-10 secretion were evaluated using real-time PCR and ELISA at 6, 9, and 15 days post inoculation (d.p.i.). The cytokine levels were evaluated in the supernatants of porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) following stimulation with LTA, poly(I:C), CL097, and PRRSV individually. RESULTS: HP caused more severe clinical signs and pathological lesions in swine than LP and LP-der had almost no virulence compared with LP. The serum levels of IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma were increased in HP-infected piglets, which were greater than in those infected with LP or LP-der. The mRNA levels of TLR3, 7, and 8 were significantly up-regulated in PAMs in HP-infected pigs compared to those in groups LP and LP-der. Furthermore, TNF-alpha and IL-1beta secretion in PAMs from group LP was statistically greater than those from the control group after stimulation with either poly(I:C) or CL097. Meanwhile, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 levels in CL097-stimulated PBMCs from HP-infected pigs were markedly higher than those from the LP- and LP-der-infected groups. CONCLUSIONS: We found that HP was a stronger inducer of TLR 3, 7, and 8 expression and IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma production compared to LP and LP-der. HP enhanced production of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 in PBMCs following CL097-stimulation more than LP and LP-der, whereas LP enhanced the secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in poly(I:C)- and CL097-stimulated PAMs. Our data regarding cellular reactivity to different isolates should be useful in the development of more efficacious vaccines.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 36 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 2 6%
Spain 1 3%
Denmark 1 3%
Unknown 32 89%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 7 19%
Student > Master 6 17%
Researcher 5 14%
Student > Bachelor 3 8%
Student > Doctoral Student 2 6%
Other 7 19%
Unknown 6 17%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 15 42%
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 7 19%
Chemical Engineering 1 3%
Unspecified 1 3%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 1 3%
Other 3 8%
Unknown 8 22%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 01 May 2013.
All research outputs
#17,250,712
of 21,346,377 outputs
Outputs from Virology Journal
#2,310
of 2,915 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#129,342
of 173,070 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Virology Journal
#1
of 1 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 21,346,377 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 11th percentile – i.e., 11% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 2,915 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 20.6. This one is in the 5th percentile – i.e., 5% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
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