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A large and persistent outbreak of typhoid fever caused by consuming contaminated water and street-vended beverages: Kampala, Uganda, January – June 2015

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Public Health, January 2017
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (74th percentile)

Mentioned by

policy
1 policy source
twitter
4 tweeters
facebook
1 Facebook page

Citations

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51 Dimensions

Readers on

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238 Mendeley
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Title
A large and persistent outbreak of typhoid fever caused by consuming contaminated water and street-vended beverages: Kampala, Uganda, January – June 2015
Published in
BMC Public Health, January 2017
DOI 10.1186/s12889-016-4002-0
Pubmed ID
Authors

Steven Ndugwa Kabwama, Lilian Bulage, Fred Nsubuga, Gerald Pande, David Were Oguttu, Richardson Mafigiri, Christine Kihembo, Benon Kwesiga, Ben Masiira, Allen Eva Okullo, Henry Kajumbula, Joseph Matovu, Issa Makumbi, Milton Wetaka, Sam Kasozi, Simon Kyazze, Melissa Dahlke, Peter Hughes, Juliet Nsimire Sendagala, Monica Musenero, Immaculate Nabukenya, Vincent R. Hill, Eric Mintz, Janell Routh, Gerardo Gómez, Amelia Bicknese, Bao-Ping Zhu

Abstract

On 6 February 2015, Kampala city authorities alerted the Ugandan Ministry of Health of a "strange disease" that killed one person and sickened dozens. We conducted an epidemiologic investigation to identify the nature of the disease, mode of transmission, and risk factors to inform timely and effective control measures. We defined a suspected case as onset of fever (≥37.5 °C) for more than 3 days with abdominal pain, headache, negative malaria test or failed anti-malaria treatment, and at least 2 of the following: diarrhea, nausea or vomiting, constipation, fatigue. A probable case was defined as a suspected case with a positive TUBEX® TF test. A confirmed case had blood culture yielding Salmonella Typhi. We conducted a case-control study to compare exposures of 33 suspected case-patients and 78 controls, and tested water and juice samples. From 17 February-12 June, we identified 10,230 suspected, 1038 probable, and 51 confirmed cases. Approximately 22.58% (7/31) of case-patients and 2.56% (2/78) of controls drank water sold in small plastic bags (ORM-H = 8.90; 95%CI = 1.60-49.00); 54.54% (18/33) of case-patients and 19.23% (15/78) of controls consumed locally-made drinks (ORM-H = 4.60; 95%CI: 1.90-11.00). All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Water and juice samples exhibited evidence of fecal contamination. Contaminated water and street-vended beverages were likely vehicles of this outbreak. At our recommendation authorities closed unsafe water sources and supplied safe water to affected areas.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 4 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 238 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United Kingdom 1 <1%
Unknown 237 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 46 19%
Student > Bachelor 39 16%
Researcher 22 9%
Student > Postgraduate 17 7%
Other 12 5%
Other 40 17%
Unknown 62 26%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 40 17%
Nursing and Health Professions 23 10%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 23 10%
Immunology and Microbiology 18 8%
Environmental Science 11 5%
Other 46 19%
Unknown 77 32%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 6. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 24 February 2019.
All research outputs
#4,126,596
of 17,363,630 outputs
Outputs from BMC Public Health
#4,051
of 11,737 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#92,040
of 365,715 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Public Health
#1
of 3 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 17,363,630 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done well and is in the 76th percentile: it's in the top 25% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 11,737 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 12.4. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 65% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 365,715 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 74% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 3 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them