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Phylogenetic analysis of the Australasian paralysis ticks and their relatives (Ixodidae: Ixodes: Sternalixodes)

Overview of attention for article published in Parasites & Vectors, March 2017
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Title
Phylogenetic analysis of the Australasian paralysis ticks and their relatives (Ixodidae: Ixodes: Sternalixodes)
Published in
Parasites & Vectors, March 2017
DOI 10.1186/s13071-017-2045-4
Pubmed ID
Authors

Mackenzie L. Kwak, Ian Beveridge, Anson V. Koehler, Mallik Malipatil, Robin B. Gasser, Abdul Jabbar

Abstract

The Australasian paralysis ticks and their relatives, Ixodes Latrielle, subgenus Sternalixodes Schulze, are some of the most important ticks in the region. However, very little is known about their phylogenetic relationships. The aim of this study was to elucidate the evolutionary relationships of members of the subgenus Sternalixodes by undertaking phylogenetic analyses of morphological and molecular datasets. Adult females (n = 64) of Sternalixodes, including Ixodes anatis Chilton, 1904, Ixodes confusus Roberts, 1960, Ixodes cornuatus Roberts, 1960, Ixodes cordifer Neumann, 1908, Ixodes dendrolagi Wilson, 1967, Ixodes hirsti Hassall, 1931, Ixodes holocyclus Neumann, 1899, Ixodes myrmecobii Roberts, 1962 and Ixodes trichosuri Roberts, 1960, were examined morphologically. Subsequently, these Ixodes spp. were genetically characterised using cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) of the rRNA. Both morphological and molecular datasets were analysed using various phylogenetic methods to assess the evolutionary relationship of various members of the subgenus Sternalixodes. Phylogenetic analyses of the cox1 sequences and morphological characters datasets revealed that the Australian and Papuan Sternalixodes formed a distinct clade with the New Zealand member of the group I. anatis positioned basally, in a separate clade. Ixodes holocyclus, I. cornuatus and I. myrmecobii formed a distinctive clade in both the cox1 and morphological phylogenies. However, based on phylogenetic analysis of the ITS-2 data, I. holocyclus formed a separate clade whereas I. cornuatus and I. myrmecobii grouped in a different clade. The cox1 and morphological data suggest that the subgenus Sternalixodes is paraphyletic, and I. anatis is not a sternalixodid tick; hence, it should not be included in the subgenus. Based on the phylogenetic analyses of cox1 and ITS-2 sequences, it appears that I. myrmecobii and I. cornuatus are not subspecies of I. holocyclus. Although this study provided better insights into the taxonomic status of the subgenus Sternalixodes, a complete morphological and molecular (using multiple markers) phylogenetic analysis including all members of the subgenus would be required to more accurately elucidate the evolutionary relationships within the subgenus.

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 10 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 10 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 2 20%
Researcher 2 20%
Student > Doctoral Student 1 10%
Lecturer > Senior Lecturer 1 10%
Professor > Associate Professor 1 10%
Other 0 0%
Unknown 3 30%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 3 30%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 1 10%
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 1 10%
Unknown 5 50%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 03 March 2017.
All research outputs
#6,967,708
of 9,140,924 outputs
Outputs from Parasites & Vectors
#1,916
of 2,630 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#186,031
of 253,353 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Parasites & Vectors
#112
of 154 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 9,140,924 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 13th percentile – i.e., 13% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 2,630 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.2. This one is in the 13th percentile – i.e., 13% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
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We're also able to compare this research output to 154 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 7th percentile – i.e., 7% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.