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Iron availability affects West Nile virus infection in its mosquito vector

Overview of attention for article published in Virology Journal, June 2017
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  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (70th percentile)

Mentioned by

4 tweeters
1 patent


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Readers on

42 Mendeley
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Iron availability affects West Nile virus infection in its mosquito vector
Published in
Virology Journal, June 2017
DOI 10.1186/s12985-017-0770-0
Pubmed ID

Jean-Bernard Duchemin, Prasad N Paradkar


Mosquitoes are responsible for transmission of viruses, including dengue, West Nile and chikungunya viruses. Female mosquitoes are infected when they blood-feed on vertebrates, a required step for oogenesis. During this process, mosquitoes encounter high iron loads. Since iron is an essential nutrient for most organisms, including pathogens, one of the defense mechanisms for the host includes sequestration of iron away from the invading pathogen. Here, we determine whether iron availability affects viral replication in mosquitoes. To elucidate effect of iron availability on mosquito cells during infection, Culex cells were treated with either ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) or the iron chelator, deferoxamine (DFX). Real time RT-PCR was performed using ferritin (heavy chain) and NRAMP as a measure of iron homeostasis in cells. To determine iron requirement for viral replication, Culex cells were knocked down for NRAMP using dsRNA. Finally, the results were validated in Culex mosquito-infection model, by treating infected mosquitoes with DFX to reduce iron levels. Our results show that infection of Culex cells led to induction in levels of ferritin (heavy chain) and NRAMP mRNAs in time-dependent manner. Results also showed that treatment of cells with FAC, reduced expression of NRAMP (iron transporter) and increase levels of ferritin (heavy chain). Interestingly, increasing iron levels increased viral titers; while reducing intracellular iron levels, either by NRAMP knock-down or using DFX, reduced viral titers. The results from Culex mosquito infection showed that mosquitoes treated with DFX had reduced viral titers compared with untreated controls in midgut as well as carcass 8 days pi. Saliva from mosquitoes treated with DFX also showed reduced viral titers compared with untreated controls, indicating low viral transmission capacity. Our results indicate that iron is required for viral replication in mosquito cells. Mosquitoes respond to viral infection, by inducing expression of heavy chain ferritin, which sequesters available iron, reducing its availability to virus infected cells. The data indicates that heavy chain ferritin may be part of an immune mechanism of mosquitoes in response to viral infections.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 4 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 42 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Brazil 1 2%
Unknown 41 98%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 8 19%
Researcher 6 14%
Student > Doctoral Student 5 12%
Student > Bachelor 4 10%
Student > Master 4 10%
Other 9 21%
Unknown 6 14%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 8 19%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 6 14%
Medicine and Dentistry 6 14%
Immunology and Microbiology 4 10%
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 2 5%
Other 9 21%
Unknown 7 17%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 5. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 18 February 2021.
All research outputs
of 20,310,861 outputs
Outputs from Virology Journal
of 2,827 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 286,596 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Virology Journal
of 1 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 20,310,861 research outputs across all sources so far. This one has received more attention than most of these and is in the 73rd percentile.
So far Altmetric has tracked 2,827 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 20.9. This one has done well, scoring higher than 81% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 286,596 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 70% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them