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The human jejunum has an endogenous microbiota that differs from those in the oral cavity and colon

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Microbiology, July 2017
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  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (70th percentile)

Mentioned by

11 tweeters


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134 Mendeley
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The human jejunum has an endogenous microbiota that differs from those in the oral cavity and colon
Published in
BMC Microbiology, July 2017
DOI 10.1186/s12866-017-1059-6
Pubmed ID

Olof H. Sundin, Antonio Mendoza-Ladd, Mingtao Zeng, Diana Diaz-Arévalo, Elisa Morales, B. Matthew Fagan, Javier Ordoñez, Philip Velez, Nishaal Antony, Richard W. McCallum


The upper half of the human small intestine, known as the jejunum, is the primary site for absorption of nutrient-derived carbohydrates, amino acids, small peptides, and vitamins. In contrast to the colon, which contains 10(11)-10(12) colony forming units of bacteria per ml (CFU/ml), the normal jejunum generally ranges from 10(3) to 10(5) CFU per ml. Because invasive procedures are required to access the jejunum, much less is known about its bacterial microbiota. Bacteria inhabiting the jejunal lumen have been investigated by classical culture techniques, but not by culture-independent metagenomics. The lumen of the upper jejunum was sampled during enteroscopy of 20 research subjects. Culture on aerobic and anaerobic media gave live bacterial counts ranging from 5.8 × 10(3) CFU/ml to 8.0 × 10(6) CFU/ml. DNA from the same samples was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene-specific quantitative PCR, yielding values from 1.5 × 10(5) to 3.1 × 10(7) bacterial genomes per ml. When calculated for each sample, estimated bacterial viability ranged from effectively 100% to a low of 0.3%. 16S rRNA metagenomic analysis of uncultured bacteria by Illumina MiSeq sequencing gave detailed microbial composition by phylum, genus and species. The genera Streptococcus, Prevotella, Veillonella and Fusobacterium, were especially abundant, as well as non-oral genera including Escherichia, Klebsiella, and Citrobacter. The jejunum was devoid of the genera Alistipes, Ruminococcus, Faecalibacterium, and other extreme anaerobes abundant in the colon. In patients with higher bacterial loads, there was no significant change in microbial species composition. The jejunal lumen contains a distinctive bacterial population consisting primarily of facultative anaerobes and oxygen-tolerant obligate anaerobes similar to those found in the oral cavity. However, the frequent abundance of Enterobacteriaceae represents a major difference from oral microbiota. Although a few genera are shared with the colon, we found no evidence for retrograde movement of the most abundant colonic microbes to the jejunum. Some individuals had much higher bacterial loads, but this was not correlated with decreases in bacterial species diversity or other evidence of dysbiosis.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 11 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 134 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 134 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 23 17%
Student > Ph. D. Student 21 16%
Student > Bachelor 15 11%
Student > Master 14 10%
Student > Postgraduate 9 7%
Other 16 12%
Unknown 36 27%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 22 16%
Medicine and Dentistry 22 16%
Immunology and Microbiology 18 13%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 15 11%
Nursing and Health Professions 5 4%
Other 12 9%
Unknown 40 30%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 5. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 07 March 2018.
All research outputs
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Outputs from BMC Microbiology
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Outputs of similar age
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Outputs of similar age from BMC Microbiology
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Altmetric has tracked 12,612,351 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done well and is in the 75th percentile: it's in the top 25% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,858 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 3.8. This one has done well, scoring higher than 80% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 261,343 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 70% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them