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RNAi therapy to the wall of arteries and veins: anatomical, physiologic, and pharmacological considerations

Overview of attention for article published in Journal of Translational Medicine, July 2017
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RNAi therapy to the wall of arteries and veins: anatomical, physiologic, and pharmacological considerations
Published in
Journal of Translational Medicine, July 2017
DOI 10.1186/s12967-017-1270-0
Pubmed ID

Christoph S. Nabzdyk, Leena Pradhan-Nabzdyk, Frank W. LoGerfo


Cardiovascular disease remains a major health care challenge. The knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of the respective vascular disease etiologies has greatly expanded over the last decades. This includes the contribution of microRNAs, endogenous non-coding RNA molecules, known to vastly influence gene expression. In addition, short interference RNA has been established as a mechanism to temporarily affect gene expression. This review discusses challenges relating to the design of a RNA interference therapy strategy for the modulation of vascular disease. Despite advances in medical and surgical therapies, atherosclerosis (ATH), aortic aneurysms (AA) are still associated with high morbidity and mortality. In addition, intimal hyperplasia (IH) remains a leading cause of late vein and prosthetic bypass graft failure. Pathomechanisms of all three entities include activation of endothelial cells (EC) and dedifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). RNA interference represents a promising technology that may be utilized to silence genes contributing to ATH, AA or IH. Successful RNAi delivery to the vessel wall faces multiple obstacles. These include the challenge of cell specific, targeted delivery of RNAi, anatomical barriers such as basal membrane, elastic laminae in arterial walls, multiple layers of VSMC, as well as adventitial tissues. Another major decision point is the route of delivery and potential methods of transfection. A plethora of transfection reagents and adjuncts have been described with varying efficacies and side effects. Timing and duration of RNAi therapy as well as target gene choice are further relevant aspects that need to be addressed in a temporo-spatial fashion. While multiple preclinical studies reported encouraging results of RNAi delivery to the vascular wall, it remains to be seen if a single target can be sufficient to the achieve clinically desirable changes in the injured vascular wall in humans. It might be necessary to achieve simultaneous and/or sequential silencing of multiple, synergistically acting target genes. Some advances in cell specific RNAi delivery have been made, but a reliable vascular cell specific transfection strategy is still missing. Also, off-target effects of RNAi and unwanted effects of transfection agents on gene expression are challenges to be addressed. Close collaborative efforts between clinicians, geneticists, biologists, and chemical and medical engineers will be needed to provide tailored therapeutics for the various types of vascular diseases.

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 28 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 28 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 9 32%
Student > Doctoral Student 3 11%
Student > Ph. D. Student 3 11%
Researcher 2 7%
Student > Master 2 7%
Other 3 11%
Unknown 6 21%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 5 18%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 4 14%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 4 14%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 3 11%
Engineering 2 7%
Other 3 11%
Unknown 7 25%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 01 August 2017.
All research outputs
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Outputs from Journal of Translational Medicine
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Outputs of similar age
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Outputs of similar age from Journal of Translational Medicine
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Altmetric has tracked 18,467,202 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 37th percentile – i.e., 37% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 3,337 research outputs from this source. They typically receive more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 9.3. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 50% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 280,035 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 44th percentile – i.e., 44% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them