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In vitro and in vivo activity of R- and S- praziquantel enantiomers and the main human metabolite trans-4-hydroxy-praziquantel against Schistosoma haematobium

Overview of attention for article published in Parasites & Vectors, August 2017
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Title
In vitro and in vivo activity of R- and S- praziquantel enantiomers and the main human metabolite trans-4-hydroxy-praziquantel against Schistosoma haematobium
Published in
Parasites & Vectors, August 2017
DOI 10.1186/s13071-017-2293-3
Pubmed ID
Authors

Jana Kovač, Mireille Vargas, Jennifer Keiser

Abstract

Praziquantel (PZQ) is the mainstay of schistosomiasis control and has been successfully used for decades. However, its mechanism of action is not fully understood. While the majority of studies have been conducted on Schistosoma mansoni, it is not known which enantiomer, R- or S-praziquantel (R-/S-PZQ), is responsible for the activity on Schistosoma haematobium. In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to evaluate the activity of R- and S-PZQ, racemic PZQ and the main human metabolite, namely trans-4-OH-PZQ, on S. haematobium. IC50 values on adult S. haematobium were determined in vitro. Dose-response relationship studies were performed in golden Syrian hamsters, harbouring a chronic S. haematobium infection. R-PZQ displayed the highest activity against adult worms in vitro, revealing an IC50 of 0.007 μg/ml at 4 h and 0.01 μg/ml at 72 h. In contrast, S-PZQ was 501× less active (eudysmic ratio at 4 h), with an IC50 of 3.51 and 3.40 μg/ml (4 and 72 h, respectively). Racemic PZQ and trans-4-OH-PZQ resulted in an IC50 of 0.03 μg/ml and 1.47 μg/ml both at 4 and 72 h, respectively. In vivo, R-PZQ was the most potent drug with worm burden reductions (WBRs) of 98.5, 75.6 and 73.3% at 125.0, 62.5 and 31.0 mg/kg, respectively. A single oral dose of 250.0 mg/kg PZQ resulted in a WBR of 99.3%. S-PZQ was highly active in vivo at 250.0 and 500.0 mg/kg with WBRs of 83.0 and 94.1%, respectively. The lowest tested dose of S-PZQ, 125.0 mg/kg, showed moderate activity (WBR of 46.7%). The calculated ED50 for R- and S-PZQ were 24.7 and 127.6 mg/kg, respectively, with a corresponding eudysmic ratio of 5.17. Our data support the theory of R-PZQ driving the antischistosomal activity. Interestingly, also S-PZQ proved to possess a significant activity towards S. haematobium, particularly in vivo.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 38 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 38 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 9 24%
Student > Ph. D. Student 8 21%
Researcher 4 11%
Unspecified 2 5%
Student > Doctoral Student 2 5%
Other 2 5%
Unknown 11 29%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Chemistry 7 18%
Medicine and Dentistry 5 13%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 4 11%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 4 11%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 3 8%
Other 3 8%
Unknown 12 32%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 04 August 2017.
All research outputs
#10,260,306
of 11,564,189 outputs
Outputs from Parasites & Vectors
#2,553
of 2,926 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#224,401
of 265,537 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Parasites & Vectors
#96
of 99 outputs
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We're also able to compare this research output to 99 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.