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XIAP over-expression is an independent poor prognostic marker in Middle Eastern breast cancer and can be targeted to induce efficient apoptosis

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Cancer, September 2017
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Title
XIAP over-expression is an independent poor prognostic marker in Middle Eastern breast cancer and can be targeted to induce efficient apoptosis
Published in
BMC Cancer, September 2017
DOI 10.1186/s12885-017-3627-4
Pubmed ID
Authors

Azhar R. Hussain, Abdul Khalid Siraj, Maqbool Ahmed, Rong Bu, Poyil Pratheeshkumar, Alanood M. Alrashed, Zeeshan Qadri, Dahish Ajarim, Fouad Al-Dayel, Shaham Beg, Khawla S. Al-Kuraya

Abstract

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in females and is ranked second in cancer-related deaths all over the world in women. Despite improvement in diagnosis, the survival rate of this disease has still not improved. X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis (XIAP) has been shown to be over-expressed in various cancers leading to poor overall survival. However, the role of XIAP in breast cancer from Middle Eastern region has not been fully explored. We examined the expression of XIAP in more than 1000 Middle Eastern breast cancer cases by immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. Protein expression was determined by western blotting. Finally, in vivo studies were performed on nude mice following xenografting and treatment with inhibitors. XIAP was found to be over-expressed in 29.5% of cases and directly associated with clinical parameters such as tumor size, extra nodal extension, triple negative breast cancer and poorly differentiated breast cancer subtype. In addition, XIAP over-expression was also significantly associated with PI3-kinase pathway protein; p-AKT, proliferative marker; Ki-67 and anti-apoptotic marker; PARP. XIAP over-expression in our cohort of breast cancer was an independent poor prognostic marker in multivariate analysis. Next, we investigated inhibition of XIAP using a specific inhibitor; embelin and found that embelin treatment led to inhibition of cell viability and induction of apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Finally, breast cancer cells treated with combination of embelin and PI3-kinase inhibitor; LY294002 synergistically induced apoptosis and caused tumor growth regression in vivo. These data suggest that XIAP may be playing an important role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer and can be therapeutically targeted either alone or in combination with PI3-kinase inhibition to induce efficient apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 32 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 32 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 9 28%
Researcher 5 16%
Student > Ph. D. Student 5 16%
Student > Master 4 13%
Student > Doctoral Student 1 3%
Other 1 3%
Unknown 7 22%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 11 34%
Medicine and Dentistry 4 13%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 3 9%
Social Sciences 1 3%
Chemistry 1 3%
Other 3 9%
Unknown 9 28%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 15 September 2017.
All research outputs
#13,318,276
of 16,755,890 outputs
Outputs from BMC Cancer
#3,929
of 6,097 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#205,901
of 277,714 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Cancer
#1
of 1 outputs
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