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The flipflop orphan genes are required for limb bud eversion in the Tribolium embryo

Overview of attention for article published in Frontiers in Zoology, October 2017
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Title
The flipflop orphan genes are required for limb bud eversion in the Tribolium embryo
Published in
Frontiers in Zoology, October 2017
DOI 10.1186/s12983-017-0234-9
Pubmed ID
Authors

Susanne Thümecke, Anke Beermann, Martin Klingler, Reinhard Schröder

Abstract

Unlike Drosophila but similar to other arthropod and vertebrate embryos, the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum develops everted limb buds during embryogenesis. However, the molecular processes directing the evagination of epithelia are only poorly understood. Here we show that the newly discovered genes Tc-flipflop1 and Tc-flipflop2 are involved in regulating the directional budding of appendages. RNAi-knockdown of Tc-flipflop results in a variety of phenotypic traits. Most prominently, embryonic limb buds frequently grow inwards rather than out, leading to the development of inverted appendages inside the larval body. Moreover, affected embryos display dorsal closure defects. The Tc-flipflop genes are evolutionarily non-conserved, and their molecular function is not evident. We further found that Tc-RhoGEF2, a highly-conserved gene known to be involved in actomyosin-dependent cell movement and cell shape changes, shows a Tc-flipflop-like RNAi-phenotype. The similarity of the inverted appendage phenotype in both the flipflop- and the RhoGEF2 RNAi gene knockdown led us to conclude that the Tc-flipflop orphan genes act in a Rho-dependent pathway that is essential for the early morphogenesis of polarised epithelial movements. Our work describes one of the few examples of an orphan gene playing a crucial role in an important developmental process.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 2 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 11 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 11 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 3 27%
Student > Ph. D. Student 2 18%
Professor 1 9%
Student > Bachelor 1 9%
Student > Doctoral Student 1 9%
Other 1 9%
Unknown 2 18%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 4 36%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 3 27%
Computer Science 1 9%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 1 9%
Unknown 2 18%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 28 October 2017.
All research outputs
#6,933,248
of 12,061,875 outputs
Outputs from Frontiers in Zoology
#310
of 442 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#136,101
of 284,770 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Frontiers in Zoology
#13
of 18 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 12,061,875 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 40th percentile – i.e., 40% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 442 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 11.4. This one is in the 26th percentile – i.e., 26% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 284,770 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 49th percentile – i.e., 49% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 18 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 11th percentile – i.e., 11% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.