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Moroccan strains of Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica differentially impact on nitric oxide production by macrophages

Overview of attention for article published in Parasites & Vectors, October 2017
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Title
Moroccan strains of Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica differentially impact on nitric oxide production by macrophages
Published in
Parasites & Vectors, October 2017
DOI 10.1186/s13071-017-2401-4
Pubmed ID
Authors

Hasnaa Maksouri, Pham My-Chan Dang, Vasco Rodrigues, Jérôme Estaquier, Myriam Riyad, Khadija Akarid

Abstract

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-borne parasitic disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. In Morocco, CL is a public health problem mainly caused by Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica, which are responsible for zoonotic and anthroponotic CL, respectively. Macrophages are the primary cells infected by Leishmania parasites and their capacity to produce nitric oxide (NO) is of critical importance for parasite elimination. To our knowledge, the role of NO on autochthonous infections has never been investigated before. In this study, we evaluated in vitro the capacity of autochthonous primary dermotropic strains of L. major and L. tropica to modulate NO production by J774-macrophages and determine the sensitivity of both species to exogenous NO. The infectivity of the J774 cell line was analyzed by optical microscopy. NO production by macrophages was measured by the Griess method. The sensitivity to NO by the two strains was assessed by the MTT assay using NO donors. Our results show that the percentage of infected macrophages and the average number of parasites per macrophage were similar for L. major and L. tropica strains. While L. tropica significantly inhibited NO production induced by LPS and IFN-γ stimulation in J774 macrophages, L. major did not affect it. However, soluble Leishmania antigens (SLAs) from both autochthonous primary strains significantly inhibited the production of NO by J774-macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, our results demonstrated that promastigotes and amastigotes from both strains are sensitive to SNAP NO donor in a dose-dependent manner, although L. tropica demonstrated an increased sensitivity. Our results suggest a differential ability of L. major and L. tropica strains to modulate the capacity of macrophages to produce NO. The increased ability of L. tropica to inhibit NO production by macrophages might come as a necessity due to its higher sensitivity to NO donor. Our results provide one explanation for the tendency of L. tropica to cause chronic lesions and may contribute to the different physiopathology of CL in Morocco.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 28 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 28 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 5 18%
Student > Ph. D. Student 4 14%
Student > Doctoral Student 3 11%
Student > Bachelor 3 11%
Student > Master 3 11%
Other 1 4%
Unknown 9 32%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 7 25%
Immunology and Microbiology 5 18%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 2 7%
Nursing and Health Professions 1 4%
Economics, Econometrics and Finance 1 4%
Other 1 4%
Unknown 11 39%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 26 October 2017.
All research outputs
#10,691,932
of 12,056,897 outputs
Outputs from Parasites & Vectors
#2,662
of 3,045 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#238,834
of 284,715 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Parasites & Vectors
#174
of 210 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 12,056,897 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 3,045 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.5. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
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We're also able to compare this research output to 210 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.