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The progression of heartworm associated respiratory disease (HARD) in SPF cats 18 months after Dirofilaria immitis infection

Overview of attention for article published in Parasites & Vectors, November 2017
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Title
The progression of heartworm associated respiratory disease (HARD) in SPF cats 18 months after Dirofilaria immitis infection
Published in
Parasites & Vectors, November 2017
DOI 10.1186/s13071-017-2425-9
Pubmed ID
Authors

A. Ray Dillon, Bryon L. Blagburn, Michael Tillson, William Brawner, Betsy Welles, Calvin Johnson, Russell Cattley, Pat Rynders, Sharron Barney

Abstract

Heartworm-associated respiratory disease (HARD) in cats is induced by the arrival and death of immature adult Dirofilaria immitis in the pulmonary system and is indistinguishable from mature adult heartworm infection. A controlled, blind research study investigated the long-term (18 months post infection, PI) consequences of the inflammatory response associated with the death of immature adult heartworms in cats. Three groups of cats, 10 per group, were infected with 100 third-stage (L3) larvae by subcutaneous injection. Group A cats were treated with selamectin (Revolution®; Zoetis) per label directions at 28 days PI and once monthly for 17 months. Group B cats were treated orally with ivermectin (Ivomec®; Merial) at 150 μg/kg) at 70 days PI, then every 2 weeks for 15 months. Group C cats were untreated PI. At baseline (Day 0) and on Days 70, 110, 168, 240, 309, 380, and 505 PI, peripheral blood, serum, bronchial lavage, and thoracic radiographic images were collected. The selamectin-treated cats (Group A) and ivermectin-treated cats (Group B) were free of heartworms or heartworm fragments at necropsy. All cats became heartworm antibody positive at some time point in the study except for one cat in Group A. Only cats in Group C (all with adult heartworms) were heartworm antigen positive. The heartworm antibody titer for Group B was highest on Days 110 to 168 and then decreased over time and 50% were serologically antibody negative on Day 240. Eosinophilic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytology and peripheral eosinophilia were most pronounced on Day 110 in all cats. Randomly distributed myofibrocytes in the lungs of some Group A cats suggest that precardiac larval stages were affecting the lungs. Radiographs in Group B cats demonstrated partial resolution of the initial HARD reaction but chronic myofibrocyte proliferation was histologically evident 18 months after infection. HARD was induced by immature adult worm infection with progressive improvement starting 6 to 8 months after infection but histologic lesions were evident in some cats 18 months after infection. The serologic antibody assay was negative in 50% of cats at 8 months and 100% of cats at 18 months post infection. Abnormal radiographic lung patterns continued in a subset of Group B cats for months after heartworm antibody serology and BAL cytology returned to normal.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 29 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 29 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 6 21%
Student > Bachelor 5 17%
Student > Master 4 14%
Other 3 10%
Lecturer 3 10%
Other 6 21%
Unknown 2 7%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 11 38%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 4 14%
Unspecified 2 7%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 2 7%
Medicine and Dentistry 2 7%
Other 4 14%
Unknown 4 14%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 17 November 2017.
All research outputs
#10,775,636
of 12,151,889 outputs
Outputs from Parasites & Vectors
#2,680
of 3,074 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#275,394
of 331,734 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Parasites & Vectors
#172
of 204 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 12,151,889 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 3,074 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 4.5. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
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We're also able to compare this research output to 204 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.