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Effect of tear collection on lacrimal total protein content in dogs and cats: a comparison between Schirmer strips and ophthalmic sponges

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Veterinary Research, March 2018
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Title
Effect of tear collection on lacrimal total protein content in dogs and cats: a comparison between Schirmer strips and ophthalmic sponges
Published in
BMC Veterinary Research, March 2018
DOI 10.1186/s12917-018-1390-7
Pubmed ID
Authors

Lionel Sebbag, Emily M. McDowell, Patrick M. Hepner, Jonathan P. Mochel

Abstract

Quantification of lacrimal total protein content (TPC) is an important tool for clinical scientists to understand disease pathogenesis, identify potential biomarkers and assess response to therapy, among other applications. However, TPC is not only affected by disease state but also by the method used for tear collection. Thus, the purpose of this study is to determine the impact on TPC of two methods of tear collection in dogs and cats: Schirmer strips and polyvinyl acetal (PVA) sponges. (i) In vivo - Ten healthy dogs and 10 healthy cats were examined. Each animal underwent two sessions, separated by 10 min, in which a Schirmer strip was placed in one randomly selected eye until the 20-mm mark was reached, while a strip of PVA sponge was placed in the other eye for 1 min. (ii) In vitro - Schirmer strips and PVA sponges were spiked with various volumes of four bovine serum albumin solutions (0.5, 4, 10, and 20 mg/mL). In both experiments, the wetted absorbent materials were centrifuged for 1 min, and the TPC was quantified on the extracted fluid using Direct Detect™ infrared spectroscopy. Lacrimal TPC in dogs and cats ranged from 5.2 to 14.6 mg/mL and from 6.2 to 20.6 mg/mL, respectively. In cats, TPC was significantly lower with Schirmer strips vs. PVA sponges (P < 0.001). In dogs, the volume absorbed by PVA sponges was negatively correlated with TPC (r = - 0.48, P = 0.033). The inter-session coefficient of variation was significantly lower with Schirmer strips vs. PVA sponges in both species (P ≤ 0.010). In vitro, both absorbent materials resulted in a 'concentrating effect' of the TPC obtained post-centrifugation, which was most pronounced when the volume absorbed was low, especially for Schirmer strips. Schirmer strips provide a repeatable method to quantify lacrimal TPC in dogs and cats, although care should be taken to absorb sufficient volumes of tears to minimize the concentrating effect from the absorbent material.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 35 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 35 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 6 17%
Other 4 11%
Student > Postgraduate 4 11%
Student > Master 4 11%
Professor > Associate Professor 3 9%
Other 6 17%
Unknown 8 23%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 11 31%
Medicine and Dentistry 4 11%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 3 9%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 3 9%
Chemistry 2 6%
Other 4 11%
Unknown 8 23%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 05 March 2018.
All research outputs
#10,079,275
of 12,600,122 outputs
Outputs from BMC Veterinary Research
#1,153
of 1,790 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#203,675
of 271,925 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Veterinary Research
#35
of 49 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 12,600,122 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 11th percentile – i.e., 11% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,790 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 2.8. This one is in the 19th percentile – i.e., 19% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
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We're also able to compare this research output to 49 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 12th percentile – i.e., 12% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.