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Insights into early stage of antibiotic development in small- and medium-sized enterprises: a survey of targets, costs, and durations

Overview of attention for article published in Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice, April 2018
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About this Attention Score

  • Above-average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (62nd percentile)

Mentioned by

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7 tweeters

Citations

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13 Dimensions

Readers on

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57 Mendeley
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Title
Insights into early stage of antibiotic development in small- and medium-sized enterprises: a survey of targets, costs, and durations
Published in
Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice, April 2018
DOI 10.1186/s40545-018-0135-0
Pubmed ID
Authors

Christine Årdal, Enrico Baraldi, Ursula Theuretzbacher, Kevin Outterson, Jens Plahte, Francesco Ciabuschi, John-Arne Røttingen

Abstract

Antibiotic innovation has dwindled to dangerously low levels in the past 30 years. Since resistance continues to evolve, this innovation deficit can have perilous consequences on patients. A number of new incentives have been suggested to stimulate greater antibacterial drug innovation. To design effective solutions, a greater understanding is needed of actual antibiotic discovery and development costs and timelines. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) undertake most discovery and early phase development for antibiotics and other drugs. This paper attempts to gather a better understanding of SMEs' targets, costs, and durations related to discovery and early phase development of antibacterial therapies. DRIVE-AB, a project focused on developing new economic incentives to stimulate antibacterial innovation, held a European stakeholder meeting in February 2015. All SMEs invited to this meeting (n = 44) were subsequently sent a survey to gather more data regarding their areas of activity, completed and expected development costs and timelines, and business models. Twenty-five companies responded to the survey. Respondents were primarily small companies each focusing on developing 1 to 3 new antibiotics, focused on pathogens of public health importance. Most have not yet completed any clinical trials. They have reported ranges of discovery and development out-of-pocket costs that appear to be less expensive than other studies of general pharmaceutical research and development (R&D) costs. The duration ranges reported for completing each phase of R&D are highly variable when compared to previously published general pharmaceutical innovation average durations. However, our sample population is small and may not be fully representative of all relevant antibiotic SMEs. The data collected by this study provide important insights and estimates about R&D in European SMEs focusing on antibiotics, which can be combined with other data to design incentives to stimulate antibacterial innovation. The variation implies that costs and durations are difficult to generalize due to the unique characteristics of each antibiotic project and depend on individual business strategies and circumstances.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 7 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 57 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 57 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 16 28%
Student > Bachelor 7 12%
Student > Ph. D. Student 7 12%
Researcher 5 9%
Other 5 9%
Other 6 11%
Unknown 11 19%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Business, Management and Accounting 9 16%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 6 11%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 5 9%
Social Sciences 5 9%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 4 7%
Other 14 25%
Unknown 14 25%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 4. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 12 April 2018.
All research outputs
#5,720,930
of 18,885,805 outputs
Outputs from Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
#132
of 314 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#106,460
of 291,254 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
#1
of 1 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 18,885,805 research outputs across all sources so far. This one has received more attention than most of these and is in the 69th percentile.
So far Altmetric has tracked 314 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 11.5. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 56% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 291,254 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 62% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them