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School-based malaria prevalence: informative systematic surveillance measure to assess epidemiological impact of malaria control interventions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Overview of attention for article published in Malaria Journal, April 2018
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School-based malaria prevalence: informative systematic surveillance measure to assess epidemiological impact of malaria control interventions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Published in
Malaria Journal, April 2018
DOI 10.1186/s12936-018-2297-2
Pubmed ID

Edouard K. Swana, Thierry I. Yav, Leonard M. Ngwej, Betty N. Mupemba, Suprianto, Clarence K. Mukeng, Izak Hattingh, Oscar N. Luboya, Jean-Baptiste S. Kakoma, Michael J. Bangs


In southern Democratic Republic of the Congo, malaria transmission is stable with seasonal fluctuations. Different measurements can be used to monitor disease burden and estimate the performance of control programmes. Repeated school-based malaria prevalence surveys (SMPS) were conducted from 2007 to 2014 to generate up-to-date surveillance data and evaluate the impact of an integrated vector control programme. Biannual SMPS used a stratified, randomized and proportional sampling method. Schools were randomly selected from the entire pool of facilities within each Health Area (HA). Subsequently, school-children from 6 to 12 years of age were randomly selected in a proportional manner. Initial point-of-care malaria diagnosis was made using a rapid detection test. A matching stained blood film was later examined by expert microscopy and used in the final analysis. Data was stratified and analysed based on age, survey time and location. The baseline SMPS (pre-control in 2007) prevalence was approximately 77%. From 2009 to 2014, 11,628 school-children were randomly screened. The mean age was 8.7 years with a near equal sex ratio. After exclusion, analysis of 10,493 students showed an overall malaria prevalence ratio of 1.92 in rural compared to urbanized areas. The distribution of Plasmodium falciparum malaria was significantly different between rural and urban HAs and between end of wet season and end of dry season surveys. The combined prevalence of single P. falciparum, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale infections were 29.9, 1.8 and 0.3% of those examined, respectively. Only 1.8% were mixed Plasmodium species infections. From all microscopically detected infections (3545 of 10,493 samples examined), P. falciparum represented 88.5%, followed by P. malariae (5.4%) and P. ovale (0.8%). Cases with multiple species represented 5.3% of patent infections. Malaria prevalence was independent of age and gender. Control programme performance contributed to a significant decrease in mean P. falciparum infection density in urban compared to rural locations. Some rural areas remained highly refractory to control measures (insecticide-treated bed nets, periodic indoor residual spraying). The SMPS is a useful longitudinal measurement for estimating population malaria prevalence and demonstrating disease burden and impact of control interventions. SMPS can identify refractory areas of transmission and thus prioritize control strategies accordingly.

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 82 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 82 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 14 17%
Student > Ph. D. Student 11 13%
Student > Master 10 12%
Student > Bachelor 9 11%
Student > Postgraduate 5 6%
Other 10 12%
Unknown 23 28%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 21 26%
Nursing and Health Professions 8 10%
Social Sciences 8 10%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 5 6%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 3 4%
Other 12 15%
Unknown 25 30%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 09 April 2018.
All research outputs
of 12,781,938 outputs
Outputs from Malaria Journal
of 3,751 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 273,844 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Malaria Journal
of 1 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 12,781,938 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 43rd percentile – i.e., 43% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 3,751 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 5.4. This one is in the 38th percentile – i.e., 38% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 273,844 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 50% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them