The aim of this study was to investigate the minimally invasive cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) approach in the management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with level III or IV inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombus and evaluate the survival outcomes.
We performed a retrospective analysis on 32 RCC patients with IVC thrombus that underwent nephrectomy and thrombectomy via the minimally invasive CPB/DHCA approach between January 2007 and December 2013. Perioperative variables (for example, operative time, CPB duration, and circulatory arrest duration), estimated blood loss, hospital stay, perioperative complications, and survival data were recorded and analyzed.
Thirty-two patients (median age: 56 years) were treated surgically using the CPB and DHCA approach for RCC with a level III (n = 25) or level IV (n = 7) tumor thrombus. The median operation time was 360 min (interquartile range (IQR): 300 to 435 min) with median CPB and DHCA durations of 149 min and 23 min, respectively. The median estimated blood loss was 2,500 ml. Four complications were observed but no deaths occurred perioperatively. The median follow-up was 25 months (range: 4 to 64 months). The mean overall survival (OS) was 28.2 ± 4.6 months while the disease-free survival (DFS) was 19.5 ± 11.6 months. In patients with M0 disease, ten patients developed metastases and were treated with sorafenib as an adjuvant therapy. The mean OS and DFS of this subgroup were 25.4 ± 12.8 months and 16.0 ± 14.2 months, respectively.
Radical nephrectomy and thrombectomy using CPB and DHCA to treat RCC is a relatively safe approach associated with low morbidity and mortality. This minimally invasive procedure may help minimize surgical trauma and improve perioperative outcomes.