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Splenic architecture disruption and parasite-induced splenocyte activation and anergy in Plasmodium falciparum-infected Saimiri sciureus monkeys

Overview of attention for article published in Malaria Journal, March 2015
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Title
Splenic architecture disruption and parasite-induced splenocyte activation and anergy in Plasmodium falciparum-infected Saimiri sciureus monkeys
Published in
Malaria Journal, March 2015
DOI 10.1186/s12936-015-0641-3
Pubmed ID
Authors

Francisco A Alves, Marcelo Pelajo-Machado, Paulo RR Totino, Mariana T Souza, Evonnildo C Gonçalves, Maria Paula C Schneider, José APC Muniz, Marco A Krieger, Marcia CR Andrade, Cláudio Tadeu Daniel-Ribeiro, Leonardo JM Carvalho

Abstract

The understanding of the mechanisms of immunity in malaria is crucial for the rational development of interventions such as vaccines. During blood stage infection, the spleen is considered to play critical roles in both immunity and immunopathology of Plasmodium falciparum infections. Saimiri sciureus monkeys were inoculated with blood stages of P. falciparum (FUP strain) and spleens removed during acute disease (days 7 and 13 of infection) and during convalescence (15 days after start of chloroquine treatment). Cytokine (IFNγ, TNFα, IL2, IL6, IL10, and IL12) responses of splenocytes stimulated with P. falciparum-parasitized red blood cells were assessed by real-time PCR using specific Saimiri primers, and histological changes were evaluated using haematoxylin-eosin and Giemsa-stained slides. Early during infection (day 7, 1-2% parasitaemia), spleens showed disruption of germinal centre architecture with heavy B-cell activation (centroblasts), and splenocytes showed increased expression of IFNγ, IL6 and IL12 upon in vitro stimuli by P. falciparum-parasitized red blood cells (pRBC). Conversely, 15 days after treatment of blood stage infection with chloroquine, splenocytes showed spontaneous in vitro expression of TNFα, IL2, IL6, IL10, and IL12, but not IFNγ, and stimulation with P. falciparum pRBC blocked the expression of all these cytokines. During the acute phase of infection, splenic disarray with disorganized germinal centres was observed. During convalescence, spleens of the chloroquine-treated animals showed white pulp hyperplasia with extensive lymphocyte activation and persistency of heavily haemozoin-laden macrophages throughout the red pulp. Inability to eliminate haemozoin is likely involved in the persistent lymphocyte activation and in the anergic responses of Saimiri splenocytes to P. falciparum pRBC, with important negative impact in immune responses and implications for the design of malaria vaccine.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 32 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United Kingdom 1 3%
France 1 3%
Unknown 30 94%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 8 25%
Student > Bachelor 6 19%
Student > Ph. D. Student 5 16%
Other 2 6%
Professor 2 6%
Other 5 16%
Unknown 4 13%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 7 22%
Immunology and Microbiology 6 19%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 5 16%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 4 13%
Social Sciences 2 6%
Other 4 13%
Unknown 4 13%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 29 January 2016.
All research outputs
#7,172,897
of 8,294,943 outputs
Outputs from Malaria Journal
#2,646
of 2,923 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#185,715
of 219,682 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Malaria Journal
#110
of 120 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 8,294,943 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 2,923 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 5.0. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
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We're also able to compare this research output to 120 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.