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An interpretive study of food, snack and beverage advertisements in rural and urban El Salvador

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Public Health, May 2015
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Mentioned by

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2 tweeters

Citations

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14 Dimensions

Readers on

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201 Mendeley
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Title
An interpretive study of food, snack and beverage advertisements in rural and urban El Salvador
Published in
BMC Public Health, May 2015
DOI 10.1186/s12889-015-1836-9
Pubmed ID
Authors

Baharak Amanzadeh, Karen Sokal-Gutierrez, Judith C Barker

Abstract

Globalization and increased marketing of non-nutritious foods and beverages are driving a nutrition transition in developing countries, adversely affecting the health of vulnerable populations. This is a visual interpretive study of food, snack, and beverage advertisements (ads) in rural and urban El Salvador to discern the strategies and messages used to promote consumption of highly processed, commercialized products. Digital photographs of billboard and wall advertisements recorded a convenience sample of 100 advertisements, including 53 from rural areas and 47 from urban areas in El Salvador. Advertisements were coded for location, type of product, visual details, placement and context. Qualitative methods were used to identify common themes used to appeal to consumers. Advertisements depicted "modern" fast foods, processed snacks and sugary beverages. Overall, the most prominent themes were: Cheap Price, Fast, Large Size, and Modern. Other themes used frequently in combination with these were Refreshment, Sports/Nationalism, Sex and Gender Roles, Fun/Happy Feelings, Family, Friendship and Community, and Health. In rural areas, beverage and snack food ads with the themes of cheap price, fast, and large size tended to predominate; in urban areas, ads for fast food restaurants and the theme of modernity tended to be more prominent. The advertisements represented a pervasive bombardment of the public with both explicit and subliminal messages to increase consumerism and shift dietary patterns to processed foods and beverages that are low in micronutrients and high in carbohydrates, sugar, fat and salt-dietary changes that are increasing rates of child and adult diseases including tooth decay, obesity, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Global food and beverage industries must be held accountable for the adverse public health effects of their products, especially in low-middle income countries where there are fewer resources to prevent and treat the health consequences. In addition, public health and governmental authorities should learn from the advertising strategies to promote social marketing of public health messages, and enact and enforce regulations to limit the advertisement and sale of unhealthy products, particularly for children in and around schools. This will create healthier social norms and environments for the entire population.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 2 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 201 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
El Salvador 2 <1%
Indonesia 1 <1%
United Kingdom 1 <1%
Brazil 1 <1%
Unknown 196 98%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 40 20%
Researcher 29 14%
Student > Bachelor 27 13%
Student > Ph. D. Student 25 12%
Student > Postgraduate 9 4%
Other 32 16%
Unknown 39 19%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 38 19%
Nursing and Health Professions 30 15%
Social Sciences 28 14%
Psychology 14 7%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 14 7%
Other 30 15%
Unknown 47 23%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 01 June 2015.
All research outputs
#14,812,531
of 22,807,037 outputs
Outputs from BMC Public Health
#10,896
of 14,858 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#147,760
of 267,111 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Public Health
#186
of 234 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 22,807,037 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 32nd percentile – i.e., 32% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 14,858 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 13.9. This one is in the 23rd percentile – i.e., 23% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 267,111 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 41st percentile – i.e., 41% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 234 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 19th percentile – i.e., 19% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.