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Establishment of a free-mating, long-standing and highly productive laboratory colony of Anopheles darlingi from the Peruvian Amazon

Overview of attention for article published in Malaria Journal, May 2015
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  • Above-average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (55th percentile)

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Establishment of a free-mating, long-standing and highly productive laboratory colony of Anopheles darlingi from the Peruvian Amazon
Published in
Malaria Journal, May 2015
DOI 10.1186/s12936-015-0733-0
Pubmed ID

Cuauhtémoc Villarreal-Treviño, Gissella M Vásquez, Victor M López-Sifuentes, Karin Escobedo-Vargas, Anibal Huayanay-Repetto, Yvonne-Marie Linton, Carmen Flores-Mendoza, Andrés G Lescano, Frederick M Stell


Anopheles darlingi is the main malaria vector in the Amazon region and is among the most efficient malaria vectors worldwide. However, due to the lack of a well-established laboratory colony, key control-relevant aspects of the bionomics, behaviour, genetics, and vector-parasite relationships of An. darlingi remain unknown. Here, biological parameters that had been successful in initiating other Anopheles colonies were optimized and improved for An. darlingi, with the aim of establish a free-mating, stable, and highly productive laboratory colony. Wild An. darlingi adult females were field collected from Zungarococha, Loreto Department, Peru (03°49'32.40″S, 73°21'00.08″W), and taken to the NAMRU-6 Insectary in Iquitos where F1 offspring were produced and reared. Natural copulation was successfully induced in F1 adults under a thermo-period of 30 ± 1 °C during the day and 25 ± 1 °C at night, and with a 30-min LED light stimulation period at dusk. Oviposition success was enhanced using egg-laying containers with a dark-coloured surface. Larval feeding regimes were standardized for optimal larval development. Optimized copulation induction methods were used to facilitate mating in An. darlingi until the F10 generation. No copulation induction assistance was needed in subsequent generations. In 19 generations, the An. darlingi colony produced a total of 763,775 eggs; 441,124 larvae; 248,041 pupae; and 231,591 adults. A mean of 0.56 sexual encounters/female/cage (n = 36 cages) was recorded across the first ten generations (F1-F10). A mean insemination rate of 54.7 % (n = 5,907 females) ranging from 43.6 % (F2) to 66.6 % (F10) was recorded across nine generations (F2-F10). Free-mating was casually observed in the F8 generation, and subsequently confirmed in the F9 and F10 generations; comparable insemination rates and egg laying between stimulated (51.6 %, 12.9 eggs / female), and non-stimulated (52.3 %, 11.2 eggs / female) females were recorded. The time from egg to adult development ranged from 10 to 20 days. Moreover, the colony was relocated to a new laboratory within Iquitos in the F14 generation without any noted changes in its productivity. To date (March 2015), the An. darlingi colony has been successfully reared to the F26 generation. This constitutes the first report of a free-mating, highly productive, and long-standing An. darlingi laboratory colony established through natural copulation induction, which will support critical malaria research. This rearing methodology may be a transferable, cost-effective alternative to labour-intensive forced mating practices widely used in maintaining other Anopheles colonies.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 52 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 52 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Bachelor 12 23%
Student > Master 8 15%
Researcher 7 13%
Student > Ph. D. Student 5 10%
Student > Doctoral Student 3 6%
Other 7 13%
Unknown 10 19%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 20 38%
Medicine and Dentistry 7 13%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 6 12%
Social Sciences 3 6%
Immunology and Microbiology 2 4%
Other 4 8%
Unknown 10 19%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 13 August 2015.
All research outputs
of 12,524,647 outputs
Outputs from Malaria Journal
of 3,658 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 235,134 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Malaria Journal
of 2 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 12,524,647 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 42nd percentile – i.e., 42% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 3,658 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 5.3. This one is in the 35th percentile – i.e., 35% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 235,134 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 55% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 2 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one.