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Area-level global and local clustering of human Salmonella Enteritidis infection rates in the city of Toronto, Canada, 2007–2009

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Infectious Diseases, August 2015
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  • Above-average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (59th percentile)
  • Above-average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (53rd percentile)

Mentioned by

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3 tweeters

Citations

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14 Dimensions

Readers on

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40 Mendeley
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Title
Area-level global and local clustering of human Salmonella Enteritidis infection rates in the city of Toronto, Canada, 2007–2009
Published in
BMC Infectious Diseases, August 2015
DOI 10.1186/s12879-015-1106-6
Pubmed ID
Authors

Csaba Varga, David L. Pearl, Scott A. McEwen, Jan M. Sargeant, Frank Pollari, Michele T. Guerin

Abstract

Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) remains a major foodborne pathogen in North America yet studies examining the spatial epidemiology of salmonellosis in urban environments are lacking. Our ecological study combined a number of spatial statistical methods with a geographic information system to assess area-level heterogeneity of S. Enteritidis infection rates in the city of Toronto. Data on S. Enteritidis infections between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2009 were obtained from Ontario's surveillance system, and were grouped and analyzed at the forward sortation area (FSA)-level (an area signified by the first three characters of the postal code). Incidence rates were directly standardized using the FSA-level age- and sex-based standard population. A spatial empirical Bayes method was used to smooth the standardized incidence rates (SIRs). Global clustering of FSAs with high or low non-smoothed SIRs was evaluated using the Getis-Ord G method. Local clustering of FSAs with high, low, or dissimilar non-smoothed SIRs was assessed using the Getis-Ord Gi* and the Local Moran's I methods. Spatial heterogeneity of S. Enteritidis infection rates was detected across the city of Toronto. The non-smoothed FSA-level SIRs ranged from 0 to 16.9 infections per 100,000 person-years (mean = 6.6), whereas the smoothed SIRs ranged from 2.9 to 11.1 (mean = 6.3). The global Getis-Ord G method showed significant (p ≤ 0.05) maximum spatial clustering of FSAs with high SIRs at 3.3 km. The local Getis-Ord Gi* method identified eight FSAs with significantly high SIRs and one FSA with a significantly low SIR. The Local Moran's I method detected five FSAs with significantly high-high SIRs, one FSA with a significantly low-low SIR, and four significant outlier FSAs (one high-low, and three low-high). Salmonella Enteritidis infection rates clustered globally at a small distance band, suggesting clustering of high SIRs in small distinct areas. This finding was supported by the local cluster analyses, where distinct FSAs with high SIRs, mainly in downtown Toronto, were detected. These areas should be evaluated by future studies to identify risk factors of disease in order to implement targeted prevention and control programs. We demonstrated the usefulness of combining several spatial statistical techniques with a geographic information system to detect geographical areas of interest for further study, and to evaluate spatial processes that influenced S. Enteritidis infection rates. Our study methodology could be applied to other foodborne disease surveillance data.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 3 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 40 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 40 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 10 25%
Student > Ph. D. Student 8 20%
Student > Bachelor 4 10%
Researcher 4 10%
Lecturer 3 8%
Other 6 15%
Unknown 5 13%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 6 15%
Medicine and Dentistry 5 13%
Design 3 8%
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 3 8%
Social Sciences 3 8%
Other 13 33%
Unknown 7 18%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 2. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 21 August 2015.
All research outputs
#2,286,656
of 5,565,912 outputs
Outputs from BMC Infectious Diseases
#1,042
of 2,899 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#74,831
of 192,344 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Infectious Diseases
#64
of 147 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 5,565,912 research outputs across all sources so far. This one has received more attention than most of these and is in the 57th percentile.
So far Altmetric has tracked 2,899 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 3.2. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 60% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 192,344 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 59% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 147 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 53% of its contemporaries.