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A mutual titer-enhancing relationship and similar localization patterns between Citrus exocortis viroid and Hop stunt viroid co-infecting two citrus cultivars

Overview of attention for article published in Virology Journal, September 2015
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Title
A mutual titer-enhancing relationship and similar localization patterns between Citrus exocortis viroid and Hop stunt viroid co-infecting two citrus cultivars
Published in
Virology Journal, September 2015
DOI 10.1186/s12985-015-0357-6
Pubmed ID
Authors

Chun-Yi Lin, Meng-Ling Wu, Tang-Long Shen, Ting-Hsuan Hung

Abstract

Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) and Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) are commonly found simultaneously infecting different citrus cultivars in Taiwan. A crucial question to be addressed is how accumulations of these two viroids affect each other in an infected plant. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the two viroids at macroscopic and microscopic levels. CEVd and HSVd titers were examined by real-time RT-PCR in 17 plants of two citrus cultivars (blood orange and Murcott mandarin) every 3 months (spring, summer, fall and winter) from 2011 to 2013. Three nonparametric tests (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, Kendall's tau rank correlation coefficient and Hoeffding's inequality) were performed to test the correlation between CEVd and HSVd. Cellular and subcellular localizations of the two viroids were detected by digoxigenin- and colloidal gold-labeled in situ hybridization using light and transmission electron microscopy. The two viroids were unevenly distributed in four different types of citrus tissues (rootstock bark, roots, twig bark and leaves). Compared with blood orange, Murcott mandarin was generally more susceptible to CEVd and HSVd infection. Both viroids replicated and preferentially accumulated in the underground tissues of the two citrus cultivars. Except for blood orange at high temperatures, significant positive correlations were observed between the two viroids in specific tissues of both cultivars. Relative to concentrations under single-infection conditions, the CEVd population significantly increased under double infection during half of the 12 monitored seasons; in contrast, the population of HSVd significantly increased under double infection during only one season. At cellular/subcellular levels, the two viroids showed similar localization patterns in four tissues and the cells of these tissues in the two citrus cultivars. Our findings of titer enhancement, localization similarity, and lack of symptom aggravation under CEVd and HSVd double infection suggest that the two viroids have a positive relationship in citrus. The combination of molecular and cellular techniques used in this study provided evidence of titer correlation and localization of co-infecting viroids in the host. These methods may thus be useful tools for exploring viroid-viroid and viroid-host interactions.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 27 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Hungary 1 4%
United States 1 4%
Unknown 25 93%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 5 19%
Student > Ph. D. Student 4 15%
Student > Postgraduate 2 7%
Student > Bachelor 2 7%
Student > Doctoral Student 2 7%
Other 8 30%
Unknown 4 15%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 13 48%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 4 15%
Medicine and Dentistry 2 7%
Nursing and Health Professions 1 4%
Social Sciences 1 4%
Other 3 11%
Unknown 3 11%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 18 September 2015.
All research outputs
#5,422,169
of 6,364,199 outputs
Outputs from Virology Journal
#1,311
of 1,455 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#158,872
of 198,837 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Virology Journal
#63
of 65 outputs
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