↓ Skip to main content

Life habits, hox genes, and affinities of a 311 million-year-old holometabolan larva

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Ecology and Evolution, September 2015
Altmetric Badge

About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (92nd percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (84th percentile)

Mentioned by

1 blog
25 X users
1 Wikipedia page


38 Dimensions

Readers on

36 Mendeley
You are seeing a free-to-access but limited selection of the activity Altmetric has collected about this research output. Click here to find out more.
Life habits, hox genes, and affinities of a 311 million-year-old holometabolan larva
Published in
BMC Ecology and Evolution, September 2015
DOI 10.1186/s12862-015-0428-8
Pubmed ID

Joachim T. Haug, Conrad C. Labandeira, Jorge A. Santiago-Blay, Carolin Haug, Susan Brown


Holometabolous insects are the most diverse, speciose and ubiquitous group of multicellular organisms in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. The enormous evolutionary and ecological success of Holometabola has been attributed to their unique postembryonic life phases in which nonreproductive and wingless larvae differ significantly in morphology and life habits from their reproductive and mostly winged adults, separated by a resting stage, the pupa. Little is known of the evolutionary developmental mechanisms that produced the holometabolous larval condition and their Paleozoic origin based on fossils and phylogeny. We provide a detailed anatomic description of a 311 million-year-old specimen, the oldest known holometabolous larva, from the Mazon Creek deposits of Illinois, U.S.A. The head is ovoidal, downwardly oriented, broadly attached to the anterior thorax, and bears possible simple eyes and antennae with insertions encircled by molting sutures; other sutures are present but often indistinct. Mouthparts are generalized, consisting of five recognizable segments: a clypeo-labral complex, mandibles, possible hypopharynx, a maxilla bearing indistinct palp-like appendages, and labium. Distinctive mandibles are robust, triangular, and dicondylic. The thorax is delineated into three, nonoverlapping regions of distinctive surface texture, each with legs of seven elements, the terminal-most bearing paired claws. The abdomen has ten segments deployed in register with overlapping tergites; the penultimate segment bears a paired, cercus-like structure. The anterior eight segments bear clawless leglets more diminutive than the thoracic legs in length and cross-sectional diameter, and inserted more ventrolaterally than ventrally on the abdominal sidewall. Srokalarva berthei occurred in an evolutionary developmental context likely responsible for the early macroevolutionary success of holometabolous insects. Srokalarva berthei bore head and prothoracic structures, leglet series on successive abdominal segments - in addition to comparable features on a second taxon eight million-years-younger - that indicates Hox-gene regulation of segmental and appendage patterning among earliest Holometabola. Srokalarva berthei body features suggest a caterpillar-like body plan and head structures indicating herbivory consistent with known, contemporaneous insect feeding damage on seed plants. Taxonomic resolution places Srokalarva berthei as an extinct lineage, apparently possessing features closer to neuropteroid than other holometabolous lineages.

X Demographics

X Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 25 X users who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.
Mendeley readers

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 36 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Germany 1 3%
Unknown 35 97%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 6 17%
Researcher 5 14%
Student > Master 5 14%
Student > Doctoral Student 4 11%
Student > Bachelor 3 8%
Other 11 31%
Unknown 2 6%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 20 56%
Environmental Science 4 11%
Earth and Planetary Sciences 4 11%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 1 3%
Unspecified 1 3%
Other 2 6%
Unknown 4 11%
Attention Score in Context

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 23. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 04 May 2020.
All research outputs
of 25,374,647 outputs
Outputs from BMC Ecology and Evolution
of 3,714 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 286,195 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Ecology and Evolution
of 79 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 25,374,647 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 93rd percentile: it's in the top 10% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 3,714 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 12.5. This one has done well, scoring higher than 89% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 286,195 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 92% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 79 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done well, scoring higher than 84% of its contemporaries.