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Inflammatory cytokine and chemokine profiles are associated with patient outcome and the hyperadrenergic state following acute brain injury

Overview of attention for article published in Journal of Neuroinflammation, February 2016
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Title
Inflammatory cytokine and chemokine profiles are associated with patient outcome and the hyperadrenergic state following acute brain injury
Published in
Journal of Neuroinflammation, February 2016
DOI 10.1186/s12974-016-0500-3
Pubmed ID
Authors

Alex P. Di Battista, Shawn G. Rhind, Michael G. Hutchison, Syed Hassan, Maria Y. Shiu, Kenji Inaba, Jane Topolovec-Vranic, Antonio Capone Neto, Sandro B. Rizoli, Andrew J. Baker

Abstract

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) elicits intense sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation with profuse catecholamine secretion. The resultant hyperadrenergic state is linked to immunomodulation both within the brain and systemically. Dysregulated inflammation post-TBI exacerbates secondary brain injury and contributes to unfavorable patient outcomes including death. The aim of this study was to characterize the early dynamic profile of circulating inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in patients admitted for moderate-to-severe TBI, to examine interrelationships between these mediators and catecholamines, as well as clinical indices of injury severity and neurological outcome. Blood was sampled from 166 isolated TBI patients (aged 45 ± 20.3 years; 74.7 % male) on admission, 6-, 12-, and 24-h post-injury and from healthy controls (N = 21). Plasma cytokine [interleukin (IL)-1β, -2, -4, -5, -10, -12p70, -13, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ] and chemokine [IL-8, eotaxin, eotaxin-3, IFN-γ-induced protein (IP)-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, -4, macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β, thymus activation regulated chemokine (TARC)] concentrations were analyzed using high-sensitivity electrochemiluminescence multiplex immunoassays. Plasma catecholamines [epinephrine (Epi), norepinephrine (NE)] were measured by immunoassay. Neurological outcome at 6 months was assessed using the extended Glasgow outcome scale (GOSE) dichotomized as good (>4) or poor (≤4) outcomes. Patients showed altered levels of IL-10 and all chemokines assayed relative to controls. Significant differences in a number of markers were evident between moderate and severe TBI cohorts. Elevated IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α, as well as alterations in 8 of 9 chemokines, were associated with poor outcome at 6 months. Notably, a positive association was found between Epi and IL-1β, IL-10, Eotaxin, IL-8, and MCP-1. NE was positively associated with IL-1β, IL-10, TNF-α, eotaxin, IL-8, IP-10, and MCP-1. Our results provide further evidence that exaggerated SNS activation acutely after isolated TBI in humans may contribute to harmful peripheral inflammatory cytokine/chemokine dysregulation. These findings are consistent with a potentially beneficial role for therapies aimed at modulating the inflammatory response and hyperadrenergic state acutely post-injury.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 89 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 89 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 17 19%
Student > Bachelor 12 13%
Student > Master 10 11%
Student > Ph. D. Student 10 11%
Student > Doctoral Student 9 10%
Other 19 21%
Unknown 12 13%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Neuroscience 24 27%
Medicine and Dentistry 22 25%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 7 8%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 7 8%
Immunology and Microbiology 3 3%
Other 9 10%
Unknown 17 19%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 21 February 2016.
All research outputs
#9,962,558
of 15,640,884 outputs
Outputs from Journal of Neuroinflammation
#1,153
of 1,903 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#147,183
of 268,111 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Journal of Neuroinflammation
#7
of 17 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 15,640,884 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 23rd percentile – i.e., 23% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 1,903 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a little more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 6.0. This one is in the 30th percentile – i.e., 30% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 268,111 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 35th percentile – i.e., 35% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 17 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 23rd percentile – i.e., 23% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.