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‘Blood doping’ from Armstrong to prehabilitation: manipulation of blood to improve performance in athletes and physiological reserve in patients

Overview of attention for article published in Extreme Physiology & Medicine, February 2016
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Among the highest-scoring outputs from this source (#19 of 106)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (92nd percentile)

Mentioned by

40 tweeters
4 Facebook pages
1 Google+ user
1 Redditor


20 Dimensions

Readers on

116 Mendeley
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‘Blood doping’ from Armstrong to prehabilitation: manipulation of blood to improve performance in athletes and physiological reserve in patients
Published in
Extreme Physiology & Medicine, February 2016
DOI 10.1186/s13728-016-0046-0
Pubmed ID

James O. M. Plumb, James M. Otto, Michael P. W. Grocott, Plumb, James O M, Otto, James M, Grocott, Michael P W


Haemoglobin is the blood's oxygen carrying pigment and is encapsulated in red blood corpuscles. The concentration of haemoglobin in blood is dependent on both its total mass in the circulation (tHb-mass) and the total plasma volume in which it is suspended. Aerobic capacity is defined as the maximum amount of oxygen that can be consumed by the body per unit time and is one measure of physical fitness. Observations in athletes who have undergone blood doping or manipulation have revealed a closer relationship between physical fitness (aerobic capacity) and total haemoglobin mass (tHb-mass) than with haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]). Anaemia is defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as a haemoglobin concentration of <130 g/L for men and <120 g/L for women. Perioperative anaemia is a common problem and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity following surgery. Aerobic capacity is also associated with outcome following major surgery, with less fit patients having a higher incidence of mortality and morbidity after surgery. Taken together, these observations suggest that targeted preoperative elevation of tHb-mass may raise aerobic capacity both directly and indirectly (by augmenting preoperative exercise initiatives- 'prehabilitation') and thus improve postoperative outcome. This notion in turn raises a number of questions. Which measure ([Hb] or tHb-mass) has the most value for the description of oxygen carrying capacity? Which measure has the most utility for targeting therapies to manipulate haemoglobin levels? Do the newer agents being used for blood manipulation (to increase tHb-mass) in elite sport have utility in the clinical environment? This review explores the literature relating to blood manipulation in elite sport as well as the relationship between perioperative anaemia, physical fitness and outcome following surgery, and suggests some avenues for exploring this area further.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 40 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 116 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United Kingdom 3 3%
France 1 <1%
Netherlands 1 <1%
Ireland 1 <1%
Spain 1 <1%
Unknown 109 94%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 23 20%
Student > Bachelor 21 18%
Student > Ph. D. Student 16 14%
Researcher 9 8%
Other 6 5%
Other 15 13%
Unknown 26 22%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 30 26%
Sports and Recreations 26 22%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 6 5%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 4 3%
Nursing and Health Professions 4 3%
Other 15 13%
Unknown 31 27%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 24. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 06 November 2016.
All research outputs
of 21,332,163 outputs
Outputs from Extreme Physiology & Medicine
of 106 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 280,097 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Extreme Physiology & Medicine
of 1 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 21,332,163 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 94th percentile: it's in the top 10% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 106 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 23.3. This one has done well, scoring higher than 83% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 280,097 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 92% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 1 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has scored higher than all of them