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Protein biomarkers discriminate Leishmania major-infected and non-infected individuals in areas endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis

Overview of attention for article published in BMC Infectious Diseases, March 2016
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Title
Protein biomarkers discriminate Leishmania major-infected and non-infected individuals in areas endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis
Published in
BMC Infectious Diseases, March 2016
DOI 10.1186/s12879-016-1458-6
Pubmed ID
Authors

Wafa Kammoun-Rebai, Ikbel Naouar, Valentina Libri, Matthew Albert, Hechmi Louzir, Amel Meddeb-Garnaoui, Darragh Duffy

Abstract

A successful host immune response to infection is dependent upon both innate and adaptive immune effector mechanisms. Cutaneous leishmaniasis results in an adaptive Th1 CD4(+) T cell response that efficiently clears the parasite, but may also result in scaring. However the role of innate mechanisms during parasite clearance remains less well defined. We examined a unique cohort of individuals, living in a Leishmania major endemic region, that were stratified among 3 distinct clinical groups in a cross-sectional study. Specifically, patients were classified either as healed (n = 17), asymptomatic (23), or naïve to infection (18) based upon the classical Leishmanin Skin Test (LST) and the presence or absence of scars. Utilizing a multiplexed immunoassay approach we characterized the induced cytokine and chemokine response to L. major. A subset of innate immune molecules was induced in all groups. By contrast, T cell-associated cytokines were largely induced in exposed groups as compared to L. major-infection naïve individuals. Two exceptions were IL-17A and IL-12p70, induced and not induced, respectively, in naïve individuals. In addition, GM-CSF was more strongly induced in healed patients as compared to the other two groups. Surprisingly an IL-13 response was the best cytokine for classifying previously infected donors. Exploratory data analysis, utilizing principle component analysis (PCA), revealed distinct patient clusters of the healed and naïve groups based on the most differentially induced proteins. Asymptomatic previously infected individuals were more difficult to assign to a particular cluster based on these induced proteins. Analysis of these proteins may enable the identification of biomarkers associated with disease, leading to a better understanding of the protective mechanisms of immune response against leishmaniasis.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 48 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Brazil 2 4%
Italy 1 2%
Unknown 45 94%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 8 17%
Student > Ph. D. Student 8 17%
Student > Bachelor 6 13%
Student > Master 4 8%
Student > Postgraduate 3 6%
Other 5 10%
Unknown 14 29%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 10 21%
Medicine and Dentistry 7 15%
Immunology and Microbiology 5 10%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 4 8%
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 3 6%
Other 3 6%
Unknown 16 33%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 26 March 2016.
All research outputs
#6,445,500
of 7,441,664 outputs
Outputs from BMC Infectious Diseases
#3,046
of 3,339 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#233,470
of 275,804 outputs
Outputs of similar age from BMC Infectious Diseases
#78
of 87 outputs
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So far Altmetric has tracked 3,339 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 3.6. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
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We're also able to compare this research output to 87 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 1st percentile – i.e., 1% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.