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The effect of exogenous corticosterone on West Nile virus infection in Northern Cardinals ( Cardinalis cardinalis )

Overview of attention for article published in Veterinary Research, April 2012
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Title
The effect of exogenous corticosterone on West Nile virus infection in Northern Cardinals ( Cardinalis cardinalis )
Published in
Veterinary Research, April 2012
DOI 10.1186/1297-9716-43-34
Pubmed ID
Authors

Jennifer C Owen, Jennifer C Owen, Ayaka Nakamura, Courtney AC Coon, Lynn B Martin

Abstract

The relationship between stress and disease is thought to be unambiguous: chronic stress induces immunosuppression, which likely increases the risk of infection. However, this link has not been firmly established in wild animals, particularly whether stress hormones affect host responses to zoonotic pathogens, which can be transmitted to domesticated animal, wildlife and human populations. Due to the dynamic effects of stress hormones on immune functions, stress hormones may make hosts better or poorer amplifying hosts for a pathogen contingent on context and the host species evaluated. Using an important zoonotic pathogen, West Nile virus (WNV) and a competent host, the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), we tested the effects of exogenous corticosterone on response to WNV infection. Corticosterone was administered at levels that individuals enduring chronic stressors (i.e., long-term inclement weather, food shortage, anthropogenic pollution) might experience in the wild. Corticosterone greatly impacted mortality: half of the corticosterone-implanted cardinals died between five - 11 days post-inoculation whereas only one of nine empty-implanted (control) birds died. No differences were found in viral titer between corticosterone- and empty-implanted birds. However, cardinals that survived infections had significantly higher average body temperatures during peak infection than individuals that died. In sum, this study indicates that elevated corticosterone could affect the survival of WNV-infected wild birds, suggesting that populations may be disproportionately at-risk to disease in stressful environments.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profile of 1 tweeter who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 66 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 2 3%
Romania 1 2%
Unknown 63 95%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Ph. D. Student 20 30%
Researcher 13 20%
Student > Doctoral Student 6 9%
Student > Master 5 8%
Student > Bachelor 4 6%
Other 9 14%
Unknown 9 14%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 32 48%
Environmental Science 5 8%
Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine 4 6%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 3 5%
Medicine and Dentistry 3 5%
Other 4 6%
Unknown 15 23%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 1. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 01 August 2012.
All research outputs
#3,107,657
of 4,506,762 outputs
Outputs from Veterinary Research
#318
of 417 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#48,902
of 75,134 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Veterinary Research
#4
of 5 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 4,506,762 research outputs across all sources so far. This one is in the 21st percentile – i.e., 21% of other outputs scored the same or lower than it.
So far Altmetric has tracked 417 research outputs from this source. They receive a mean Attention Score of 2.7. This one is in the 18th percentile – i.e., 18% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 75,134 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one is in the 23rd percentile – i.e., 23% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.
We're also able to compare this research output to 5 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one.