The Deyo-Charlson Comorbidity Index (DCCI) has low predictive value in the intensive care unit (ICU). Our goal was to determine whether addition of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels to the DCCI improved 90-day mortality prediction in critically ill patients.
Plasma 25OHD levels, DCCI, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores were assessed within 24 h of admission in 310 ICU patients. Receiver operating characteristic curves of the prediction scores, without and with the addition of 25OHD levels, for 90-day mortality were constructed and the areas under the curve (AUC) were compared for equality.
Mean (standard deviation) plasma 25OHD levels, DCCI, and APACHE II score were 19 (SD 8) ng/mL, 4 (SD 3), and 17 (SD 9), respectively. Overall 90-day mortality was 19 %. AUC for DCCI vs. DCCI + 25OHD was 0.68 (95 % CI 0.58-0.77) vs. 0.75 (95 % CI 0.67-0.83); p < 0.001. AUC for APACHE II vs. APACHE II + 25OHD was 0.81 (95 % CI 0.73-0.88) vs. 0.82 (95 % CI 0.75-0.89); p < 0.001. There was a significant difference between the AUC for DCCI + 25OHD and APACHE II + 25OHD (p = 0.04) but not between the AUC for DCCI + 25OHD and APACHE II (p = 0.12).
In our cohort of ICU patients, the addition of 25OHD levels to the DCCI improved 90-day mortality prediction compared to the DCCI alone. Moreover, the predictive capability of DCCI + 25OHD was comparable to that of APACHE II. Future prospective studies are needed to validate our findings and to determine whether the use of DCCI + 25OHD can influence clinical decision-making.